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Italy, Sicily - 1285 AD Pierreale - (GEF) Hammered, Gold

Stock code: CM000352X
£7,300
Country: Italy, Sicily
King (reign): Peter of Aragon & Constance of Hohenstaufen (1282 - 1285)
Denomination/metal: Gold Pierreale
Date/mint mark: Messina/Cross
Type: Hammered
Ref. no: Spahr 7; Biaggi 1302; F 654.

Obv. Crowned eagle facing right, two circles of legend Rev. Arms of Aragon, two circleas of legend
24mm, 4.4g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine, well struck and well centred. Carefully and neatly struck.

Superb condition and very rare medieval gold coin, certainly ranking as one of the best known. Peter III of Aragon lived from 1239 until 1285 and, with Roger II and Frederick II, is considered one of the greatest Sicilian sovereigns of the Middle Ages. Peter became King Peter I of Sicily in 1282 as the liberating force behind the uprising and revolution known as the Sicilian Vespers. As an esquire and knight in his father's service, Peter fought against the Moors. He later succeeded to about half his father's realm, with the other half inherited by James, his younger brother. In 1262, he married Constance, daughter (and heiress) of Manfred of Sicily. The roles of wives are often overlooked in the annals of history, but Queen Constance was no mere footnote to great events. She joined Peter in Sicily in April 1283, meeting him at Messina with the couple's younger sons, James and Frederick, their daughter Violanta, and it is at this point that this heavy gold coin was struck. In fact, Constance was Peter's "regent" in Sicily in name and in a very real sense during his absence.

England - 1513 AD Angel, Half - (VF) Hammered, Gold

Stock code: CM000104XX
£4,600
Country: England
King (reign): Henry VIII (1509 - 1547)
Denomination/metal: Gold Angel, Half
Date/mint mark: Portcullis
Type: Hammered First coinage
Ref. no: Sch.567; N.1761; S.226

Obv. St. Michael slaying dragon – both feet on dragon, Initiall mark – crowned and chained portcullis, 'HENRIC xVIII xDI xGRA xREXx ALx Zx'. Rev. Ship sailing right, Royal Arms and cross on main mast, 'h' and rose above. (short bowsprit touches beeded circle), 'Initial mark – uncrowned chained portcullis. 'Ox CRVXx AVEx SPESx VNIVA'.
21mm, 2.5g. VF - Very Fine. Body of Michael a little weak.

Very good condition coin – very rare denomination, halves much rarer than full angels

England - Charles I, Gold Triple Unite, minted Oxford during the Civil War, 1642

Stock code: CM000481X
£98,500
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Gold Pounds, Three (Triple Unite)
Date/mint mark: 1642
Type Oxford Mint, 'Declaration'
Ref. no: Schneider 286; N 2381; S 2724

Obv. Half length tall figure of Charles to left, wearing crown and full armour holding a sword and an olive branch. Plumes behind, 'CAROLVS DG MAG BRIT FRAN ET HI REX'. Rev. Declaration in a three line scroll, 'RELIG PROT / LEG ANG / LIBER PAR' (Protestant Religion, Laws of England, Liberty of Parliament), three plumes above with mark of value, date below; around 'EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI' (Let God arise and let the enemy be scattered).
46mm, 27g. GVF - Good Very Fine, strongly struck

TheTripleUnite, valued atsixty shillings, 60/-or three pounds, was the highestEnglishdenomination to be produced. It was struck at the Oxford Mint set up during the first English Civil War of 1642-6 and issued between January and March of 1642 at the hurriedly set up mint at New Inn Hall in Oxford. This huge coin was issued, at least in part, for use as gifts to those whom the King wished to 'cement' to his side in the Civil War. Thus he obverse design for the coin features an armoured bust of Charles I, with broadsword raised, and yet in visual dichotomy he bears an olive branch clutched over his heart. Charles was visually appealing to either nature of the benefactor he was seeking to entice. The bust on this coin is very hawkish which is the earliest type, later he had it changed to a more benevolent softer style. On the reverse he put his famous declaration – uttered in 1642 when he swore to to uphold the Protestant Religion, the laws of England and the freedom of Parliament. Very rare and spectacular coin!

England - 1641 AD Shillings, Twenty (Unite) - (EF) Hammered, Gold

Stock code: CM000318X
£4,550
Country: England
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, Twenty (Unite)
Date/mint mark: Tower
Type: Hammered Group 'F', Class II, Bust '7'.
Ref. no: Cf Schneider 164; Brooker 111/110; N 2154; S2694

Obv. Crowned, draped bust left, large lace collar, value XX' 'behind, CAROLVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX Rev. Crowned, garnished oval Royal Arms dividing crowned 'C' and crowned 'R', FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA', Through concord kingdoms flourish.
33mm, 9.04g. EF - Good Very Fine, strongly struck. Pleasing portrait, small scuffs in obv. field

Very pretty coin issued just before Cromwell took London and therefore controlled the Mint – rare mintmark and therefore date. When the Civil War began in 1642, the Tower mint fell into the hands of Parliament and Charles was forced to open a mints in Royalist held western England at Shrewsbury and Oxford (1642 – 46). Parliament still issued coins in the name of the king but in this initial period of confusion as the king left, not so much coin was issued..

Great Britain - 1726 AD Guinea - (AEF) Milled, Gold

Stock code: CM000185X
£4,100
Country: Great Britain
King (reign): George I (1714 - 1723)
Denomination/metal: Gold Guinea
Type: Milled
Ref. no: S3635

Obv. Laureate bust of king right. Rev. Arms of Britain France, Ireland and Hanover in cruciform, garter in centre, sceptres in angles.
25mm, 8.35g. AEF - About Extremely Fine – residual lustre

Scarce and good condition guinea

Great Britain - 1739 AD Guineas, Two - (AEF) Milled, Gold

Stock code: CM000323X
£3,900
Country: Great Britain
King (reign): George II (1723 - 1760)
Denomination/metal: Gold Guineas, Two
Type: Milled Intermediate, laureate head
Ref. no: Schneider 576; S 3668

Obv. Laureate, draped bust left. Rev. Crowned, garnished Royal Arms – Great Britain, France, Ireland and Hanover.
32mm, 16.71g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine, reverse better. Lustre in protected areas of the field, clean coin

Handsome large gold coin of George II, little wear making it a pleasing and desirable coin. George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain and was born and brought up in Northern Germany. As king from 1727, George exercised little control over British domestic policy, which was largely controlled by Great Britain's parliament. As elector, he spent 12 summers in Hanover, where he had more direct control over government policy. He had a difficult relationship with his eldest son, Frederick , who supported the parliamentary opposition. During the War of the Austrian Succession, George participated at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743, and thus became the last British monarch to lead an army into battle. In 1745, supporters of the Stuart and Catholic claimant to the British throne failed to depose George in the last of the Jacobite rebellions. Frederick died unexpectedly in 1751, leaving George's grandson, George III , as heir apparent and ultimately king.

Bank of England, ONE MILLION POUND banknote 1948 - One of only two 'million pound' notes in existence!

Stock code: B000001X
£125,000
Country: Great Britain
King (reign): George VI - (1936 - 1952)
Denomination/metal: Banknote Pounds, One Million
Date/mint mark: Bank of England

0mm, 0g. VF - Small hole cancellation through signature. Light creases and some handling otherwise good very fine to about extremely fine and extremely rare.

One Million Pounds, 30 August 1948, D 000007, on Bank of England watermarked paper, PAYABLE ON DEMAND, signature of E.E. Bridges, Secretary to the Treasury, bottom right, stamped ‘CANCELLED, 6 OCT. 1948, BANK OF ENGLAND’. Monies received through the Marshall Aid plan after World War II, were subject to strict accountability. The Treasury had to borrow from the Bank of England on a short term basis and to help with the book keeping requested the printing of high value notes. The total order sent to The Bank of England printing works was for Three Hundred Million Pounds in varying denominations, starting from Twenty Five Thousand Pounds. It is believed that the entire issue was subsequently destroyed with the exception of numbers Seven and Eight for One Million Pounds which were presented to the British and American Treasury Secretaries respectively.

England, Charles II cast silver medal issued in 1660 to celebrate the ‘Restitution of the Monarchy’.

Stock code: CM000002X
£600
Country: England
Type: Cast
Ref. no: MI I 453/38; E215

Obv. Draped bust of Charles right Rev. Leafless tree bearing three crowns, under a radiant sun.
35mm, 7.73g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine, good blue tone. Ornate suspension loop

Restoration medal by T. Rawlins. - To be worn by Royalist supporters on the return of the King. Leafless tree represents Royalty deprived of its honours which now with the restoration, will begin to flourish. RARE - USUALLY FOUND VERY WORN.

Roman Gold Aureus of Augustus, mint Lugdunum. Struck 15-13 BC.

Stock code: CM001115
£32,000
Country: Roman
Denomination/metal: Gold Aureus
Date/mint mark: 15-13BC, 6h
Type Mint of Lugdunum
Ref. no: RIC 166a; BMC 450; Calico 212

Obv. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, bare head of Augustus facing right. Rev. IMP X (in exergue) bull butting right.
7.81g. EF - An excellent portrait of Augustus struck on a very broad flan, a few light marks, otherwise extremely fine, a very attractive example.

Roman Gold Aureus of Claudius and Agrippina, mint of Rome, struck AD 50-54.

Stock code: CM001116
£42,500
Country: Roman
Denomination/metal: Gold Aureus
Date/mint mark: AD 50-54
Type Mint of Rome
Ref. no: RIC 80; BMC 72; Calico 396e.

Obv. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM P M TRIB POT PP, laureate head of Claudius facing right Rev. AGRIPPINAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust of Agrippina facing right, wearing a wreath of cornears.
7.56g. AEF - Two excellent portraits, a few light marks, nearly extremely fine and an excellent example of this very rare coin.

Viking England, Anlaf Guthfrithsson silver 'Raven' penny, struck at York , 939 - 941

Stock code: CM001154
£24,000
Country: England, Celtic
King (reign): Anlaf Guthfriston (939 -941)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Date/mint mark: 939 – 941
Type Hiberno Norse Viking issue, struck YORK
Ref. no: N 537; S 1019

Obv. Raven with wings displayed and head turned to left, ' •+A•NLAF CVNVNC IL' (Anlaf king). Rev. Small cross pattee in centre '+•A•ÐEL•FERD MINET RG' (Athelferd Moneyer).
20mm, 1.21g. EF - Better than Extremely Fine, well struck and beautifully toned, likely best example known. Once 'slabbed' and graded by NGC as 'MS62' [their certificate inc.].

Superb, exceptionally rare and archetypal Viking coin, generally considered to be the best example in existence! Anlaf Guthfrithsson was the Viking King of Dublin who had come over to England and brought with him an Hiberno-Norse army to support the two Scottish kings - Constantine II and Owen I against Aethelstan, King of Anglo-Saxon England. This combined Norse-Celtic force lost the massive and very bloody battle of Brunanburh in 937 believed to be somewhere in the Wirral - but Anlaf survived the route and escaped back to Ireland. A few years later after the death of Aethelstan in 939, in a period of uncertainty, he returned and successfully seized York and parts of the East Midlands and set up a Viking kingdom which lasted for ten years . This archetypal Viking coin the ‘Raven Penny’ was minted during this short rule, for he died two years later in 941. The obverse legend means ‘King Anlaf’ (Olaf) in Old Norse and is one of the earliest surviving texts in this language. Most Viking coins had Latin inscriptions like Anglo-Saxon coins of the period so this coin is truly Viking and doubly so as it features the Viking war standard - the raven – or is it an eagle? Both birds were associated with the Norse god "Odin", but the eagle is also associated with St John the Evangelist, so the religious message of the coins is uncertain. It could be a deliberately pagan symbol, or one which both pagans and Christians could accept. This is a very rare coin and this particular piece is exceptionally rare as it is very likely the best example in existence. With its ‘Old Norse’ legends and splendid raven it is everything one would expect a Viking coin to look like and thus has become an iconic coin.

Moors of Spain (Murabitun), 'Ali ibn Yusuf gold dinar minted Algeciras, 507h (AD 1110 -11).

Stock code: CM001144
£3,250
Country: Islamic, MURABITUN (Almoravid)
King (reign): 'Ali ibn Yusef, 1106 – 1143
Denomination/metal: Gold Dinar
Date/mint mark: 507h (AD 1110 /11).
Type Algeciras Mint

Obv. Kufic inscription. At the centre, the text consists of five lines: 'La illah ila Allah / Muhammad rassoul Allah / amir al-muslimine Ali bin / Yusuf walie ahdih / al-amir Tashufin' (Of the divine there is only God, Muhammad is the Messenger of God. The prince of the Muslims, Ali ibn Yusuf, who is the successor of the prince Tashufin). Rev. Kufic inscriptions - At the centre, the text consists of four lines: 'Al-imam / abdu / allah / amir al-Muminin' (The Imam Abdullah, prince of the believers). Around, date and mint.
25mm, 4.06g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine, well struck with some original lustre.

A superb condition Gold Dinar issued by the Moors of Spain under 'Ali ibn Yusuf minted in Algeciras on the south coast, dated 507h (1110-11 AD). Rare and in this condition particularly so – an iconic coin of the Moors of Spain. The Almoravids were a Berber confederation and Ali ibn Yusuf succeeded his father upon his death in 1106 as the 5th. Almoravid (or Murabitun dynasty) king and as such was ruler in North Africa and Al-Andalus in Spain and towards the middle of his reign all of Muslim Spain apart from Valencia He was an ethnic Berber and reigned 1106–1142 A.D and would have battled Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar . . . known as El Cid "Campeador" of the state of Valencia The Moors under 'Ali ibn Yusuf invaded the province of Toledo and carried terror to the gates of the capital of Christian Spain - they also invaded Portugal and even got as far north as to lay siege to Barcelona. It was at this point in 1111 (when this coin was issued) that the Christian leader Alfonso I of Aragon engaged them and although the outcome of this battle was actually indecisive it did have the effect of causing the Moors to abandon Catalonia and retreat south. Subsequently Alfonso went into the offensive against Ali ibn Yusuf's invaders and the Moors lost almost all the territory south of the Ebro. Saragossa was then lost to them in 1118 after a four years' series of operations and Alfonso made it his capital. In 1125 the Christians invaded Andalusia at the invitation of the Mozarabes, or Christian inhabitants of that country; and although Ali ibn Yusuf managed to hold onto Granada, the tide had turned and the Christians repossessed most of Iberian peninsular.

Turkey, Republic large gold 'Monnaie de Luxe 500 Kurush 1927.

Stock code: CM001149
£4,500
Country: Turkey
King (reign): Republic
Denomination/metal: Gold Kurush, 500
Date/mint mark: 1927
Type Monnaie de Luxe Series
Ref. no: KM 848; F 84

Obv. Radiant star and crescent above inscription within laurel and barley wreath Rev. Inscription and date within a floral wreath wreath
50mm, 35.03g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine.

Carrying on the Royal Ottoman tradition of issuing these large gold coins, the new Turkish Republic issued a 'Monnaie de Luxe' 500 kurush – very small mintage of 2,242 pieces only. It bears the new symbols of the republic a star and crescent but at the same time recalls the elaborate calligraphy of the Sultans but is now dated AD. Made in coin denomination weights they were intended for presentation purposes or jewellery and thus they are usually found mounted. This piece is not and consequently is a rare and desirable piece.

England, Charles I gold Unite (20/-) issued 134 – 1635.

Stock code: CM001152
£3,150
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, Twenty (Unite)
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Bell' 1634 – 35.
Type Tower Mint, Group D, Bust 5.
Ref. no: N 2153; S 2692.

Obv. Crowned, draped bust left, denomination 'XX' to right, CAROLVS D' G' MA' BR' FR' ET HI' REX'. Rev. Crowned, garnished almost round Royal Arms dividing crowned 'CR', 'FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA' (Through concord kingdoms flourish).
32mm, 9.05g. VF - Very Fine, well struck though weakness in one part of legend.

Superb and traditional lace collared portrait of Charles, apart from one small area all legends strongly and clearly struck – very attractive example and rare thus. Interesting to note that the fashion of ruffs had now died out and contrary to his earlier issues we see Charles wearing a lace collar - with which we normally associate the 'Cavaliers'.

Scotland, Splendid gold Rider (100/- Scots) dated 1594.

Stock code: CM000779
£6,500
Country: Scotland
King (reign): James VI (1567 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, 100
Date/mint mark: 1594
Type Seventh issue.
Ref. no: S 5458

Obv. James, in full armour holding sword and orb, riding a fully caparisoned horse right, 'IACOBVS 6 D G R SCOTORVM'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms, 'SPERO MELIORA' ( I hope hope better things).
28mm, 4.96g. AVF - Almost Very Fine, well struck.

Very splendid Scottish coin, nicknamed the 'rider' this coin was worth 100 shillings Scots This coin was issued just before James became King of England and was brought south by James in 1603 and was made legal tender in England and Wales as 10 shillings. The coinage of James VI is a very large and varied issue – more so than any other Scottish monarch, many new and innovatively designed pieces were introduced during this reign as well as several new denominations. After he inherited the English throne as James I in 1603 the Scottish monetary system was tied to the English system at a rate of 12:1 which was continued until the union of the two crowns as the United Kingdom under Anne in 1707, at which point the Scottish coinage was called in.

England, gold Double-Crown of James I, struck between 1606 & 1607

Stock code: CM000658
£1,850
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): James I (1603 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Crown, Double
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Escallop' – 1606 -07.
Type Second Coinage, Fourth bust.
Ref. no: Schneider 33; N 2087; S 2622.

Obv. Crowned, cuirassed bust of king right , 'IACOBVS D G MAG BRIT FRAN ET HIB REX'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms dividing 'IR', 'HENRICVS ROSAS REGNA IACOBVS', (Henry [united] the roses, James the kingdoms).
29mm, 4.92g. AEF - Very Fine - or better

Issued from 1605 - 11, this denomination with the fourth bust is an uncommon coin and although this piece has seen a little wear all the main features are clearly visible with no weak areas in the legend on both sides. The coinage of James I is a very large and varied issue – more so than any other monarch, many new and innovatively designed pieces were introduced during this reign as well as several new denominations. It is interesting to note the reverse legend of this coin - having become king James I of England, James VI of Scotland was very keen to unite the two kingdoms – a concept which is still current and just as controversial today !

England, gold Quarter Ryal (2/6) of Edward IV – c. 1467

Stock code: CM000646
£1,850
Country: England, House of York
King (reign): Edward IV (1471 - 1483)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, 2 and 6 Pence (Quarte
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Sun/Sun' – 1467 – 1468.
Type Light Coinage
Ref. no: Schneider 397; N 1560; S 1965.

Obv. Royal Arms dividing rose and star, 'E' above – all within a quatrefoil, 'EDWARD D I GRA REX ANGL Z FR'. Rev. Rose on star as centre of a cross fleur de lisee, lions in angles all within a tressure of eight arches, 'EXALTABUTVR IN GLORIA (he shall be exalted in glory)).
19mm, 1.94g. - Good very Fine, well struck.

Very pretty little coin. Has seen a little wear but otherwise well and centrally struck, Also, as they were usually struck on quite small flans - this is a very good example as most of the legend, on either side, is on the flan and thus legible. The slightly reduced gold coins 'Light Issue' were introduced in 1464 and this new denomination was called a Ryal worth 10 shillings with two fractions the half and the quarter. The Quarter Ryal is not particularly rare – but does not turn up very much in good condition.

England, Edward I. Silver Groat 1279 - c1281. 'One of the finest known'.

Stock code: CM001125
£23,500
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Cross potent',
Type New Coinage, Variery 'F'.
Ref. no: SCBI 39 var G; Allen F6/R37; Fox 2; n 1006; S 1379h

Obv. Crowned bust in quatrefoil of two lines, rosets in angles, triple pellet stops, 'EDWARDVS : DI : GRA : REX : ANGL'. Rev. Long Cross, triple pellets in angles, inner and outer legend, 'DNS HIBN'E DVX AQVT', (Lord of Ireland, duke of Aquitaine'), 'CIVI LONDONIA' (city of London).
29mm, 5.45g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck and attractively patinated.

Outstanding piece, Iconic coin and one of the finest known – certainly the best on the market in the last ten years. In 1279 Edward introduced this large silver fourpence for the first time in England as part of his 'New Coinage'. For some reason it was not a success and it's minting appears to have been abandoned only a few years later in around 1281. Two specimens were found in the Dover Hoard put down in 1295 and from then on there is no hoard evidence which suggests that they did not even circulate by the end of the 1290s. The majority exist today from single finds – but most of these are gilded and/or have soldered mounts on the back which suggests that their primary use, ultimately seems to have been jewellery! Consequently, as well as being extremely rare they normally are found mounted which makes the perfect example even more difficult to find! This is not only a very rare coin but an outstanding example of the first groat issued in England, a denomination which would only be resumed by Edward's grandson some sixty years later in 1351!

Great Britain, George I. Gold Guinea, 1726.

Stock code: CM001134
£3,900
King (reign): George I (1714 - 1727)
Date/mint mark: 1726
Type Fifth Bust.
Ref. no: S 3633

Obv. Laureate bust right, 'GEORGIVS D G M BR FR ET HIB REX F D'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms in cruciform, sceptres in angles, star and garter in centre, 'BRVN ET L DVX S R I A TH ET EL', (Duke of Brunswick and Luneburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire and Elector).
25mm, 0.8g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine.

A little wear on some of George's high curls but otherwise a pretty clean and attractive coin. For the first time a British coin carries the arms of Hanover and also George's many European titles.

Anglo-Gallic, Henry VI. Gold Salut d'Or (22s. 6d.), issued in Normandy shortly after 1423.

Stock code: CM001143
£1,750
King (reign): Henry VI (1422 - 1461)
Date/mint mark: 1423 - 49
Type St. Lo Mint, 2nd. Type.
Ref. no: Elias271

Obv. The Arms of France and England born by the Virgin Mary (left) and the angel Gabriel right and the word 'AVE' under sun's rays between them, 'HENRICVS DEI GRA FRACORV Z AGLIE REX'. 'Lis' mintmark at beginning of legend. Rev. Latin cross dividing fleur de lis and leopard (lion) passant guardant, 'h' below, 'XPCV VINCIT XPC REGNAT XPC IMPERAT', (Christ conquers, Christ rules, Christ commands).
26mm, 3.49g. EF - Extremely Fine, well struck.

Handsome coin struck in France for the Lancastrian king of both England and France. Marvellous iconography for the unification of both countries. In 1422 the year old king of England inherited the French throne through his mad grandfather Charles VI of France. Under the regency of the Duke of Bedford Henry soon issued coins at various French mints and this one was struck at St. Lo which is denoted by the lis mint mark at the beginning of the legend. Ten years later Joan of Arc would make an appearance which would eventually loosen the English grip on France until by 1436 only Normandy and part of Maine remained in Henry's control.

Great Britain, George III. 'Pattern' Five Guineas by R. Yeo, struck in 1777 - Unique!

Stock code: CM001131
£10,750
King (reign): George III (1760 - 1820)
Date/mint mark: 1777
Type Pattern 'en medaille', Plain Edge.
Ref. no: cf.W&R.78; cf.L&S.3; cf.S 3723A.

Obv. Laureate bust right with hair extending below bust, 'GEORGIVS III DEI GRATIA'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms in an ornate ogee shield, 'M B F ET H REX F D B ET L D S R I AT ET E', (King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Duke of Brunswick and Luneburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire and Elector).
38mm, 2.105g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine attractively patinated (encapsulated by CGS).

Unique Piece thus the ultimate rarity. Known in gold from a couple of specimens but not in any other metal and thought to be of the hand of Richard Yeo (died 1779). This probably represents a first striking in the production of the pattern coin – a soft whitemetal flan would have been used so as not to harm the dies in any way and thus an initial idea of the realistic appearance coin could be gained. At the beginning of George III's reign the die-engravers Pingo and Yeo, inspired by Tanner, were competing for the commission to design Britain's gold coinage. As it turned out only guineas were issued – probably due to the poor state of the machinery at the Royal Mint. Thus to own a Five Guinea piece of George III all that can be had is a handful of extremely rare patterns such as this.

England, Edward III. Gold Noble, Treaty Period 1351 - 1361.

Stock code: CM001138
£4,900
King (reign): Edward III (1327 - 1377)
Date/mint mark: 1351 – 61
Type Fourth coinage, Treaty Period, Group 'b'.
Ref. no: Schneider 87; N 1232; S 1503

Obv. King in antique ship holding shield of Royal Arms and sword, annulet before legend, 'EDWARD DEI GRA REX ANGL DNS HYB Z AQT'. Rev. Cross fleureee with 'E' in centre and crowned lions passant guardant in angles, trefoils in spandrels, 'IhC AVTEM TRANSIENS PER MEDIV ILLORVM IBAT' (But Jesus, passing through the midst of them, went on his way).
33mm, 7.74g. AEF - About Extremely Fine, area of legend weakly struck.

Very good example of this large medieval gold coin. Although there is one weak area in the legend – on both sides as the flan just happens to thin at this point. It is full weight and the details and facial features of the king, arms and ship are very crisp. There is an interesting aspect to this coin, for unlike most other English coins of the period, Edward has dropped his claim to France in the obverse legend. This is because after negotiations with France for peace which led to the Treaty of Bretigni in 1360, and anxious to keep the negotiated trading going between the two countries, Edward dropped his claim lest it upset the French. However, after ten years, in 1370, he resumed his claim - and France is proclaimed as an English possession on subsequent English coins for more than three centuries to come!

Great Britain, George II. Gold Five Guineas 1729.

Stock code: CM001130
£9,500
King (reign): George II (1727 - 1760)
Date/mint mark: 1729 TERTIO
Type Young Head.
Ref. no: S 3663

Obv. Laureate bust left, 'GEORGIVS III DEI GRATIA'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms in an ornate ogee shield, 'M B F ET H REX F D B ET L D S R I AT ET E', (King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Duke of Brunswick and Luneburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire and Elector).
38mm, 41.83g. GVF - Good Very Fine, edge letters a little blundered.

Pleasing coin with a small amount of wear on the raised surfaces of George's curls on the obv. Rev is Extremely Fine. Letters on the edge are a little blundered. George II was the last British monarch to be born outside Britain and the last British Monarch to lead his troops into battle - against the Austrians in South Germany at Dettingen in 1743.

England, James I gold Unite (20 shillings) issued 1604 – 1605.

Stock code: CM001061
£3,250
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): James VI (1567 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, Twenty (Unite)
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Lis' – Nov. 1604 – Jun. 1605.
Type Second Issue.

Obv. Crowned king in full armour right holding orb and sceptre, IACOBVS DG MAG BRIT FRANC ET HIB REX'. Rev. Crowned and garnished Royal Arms dividing 'IR', FACIAM EOS IN GENTEM VNAM'. (I will make them into one nation).
37mm, 9.84g. AVF - About Very Fine, well struck but with a little wear.

Although this coin has seen a little wear, because it was strongly stuck all the main features are still visible and it is still a very attractive piece of this first Stuart monarch of England. Called a 'Unite' because of James's wish to 'unite' the nations of England and Scotland – which sentiment he chose to be the reverse legend of his twenty Shillings piece. This is a concept that is particularly relevant today !

England, Edward IV gold Ryal (10 shillings), light coinage, London mint, 1464 – 1470.

Stock code: CM001060
£4,750
Country: England, House of York
King (reign): Edward IV (1461 - 1470)
Denomination/metal: Gold Ryal
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Crown' on rev. only – 1465 – 70.
Type Second or 'Light coinage'.
Ref. no: Schneider 363v; N 1549 S 1950.

Obv. Crowned king in armour holding sword and Royal Arms within an antique ship with a rose in the middle and banner containing an 'E' on the stern, 'EDWARD DI GRA REX ANGL S FRANC DNS IB'. Rev. Cross 'fleurdelise' with crowned leopards in angles, rose on star in centre, all within tressure of eight arches, lis in outer angles, no mm; 'IHC AVT' TRANSIENS PER MEDIVM ILLORVM IBAT', (But Jesus, passing in the midst of them, went his way).
34mm, 7.59g. GVF - Good Extremely Fine, well and centrally struck on a small flan.

Attractive piece with details sharp and clear – especially king's facial features, details of the boat and intricate cross on the other side. Issued in the middle of the wars of the Roses, a very turbulent time of civil war in England. Edward was an extremely capable and daring military commander and destroyed the House of Lancaster in a series of spectacular military victories - he was never defeated on the field of battle. Despite his occasional (if serious) political setbacks — usually at the hands of his great Machiavellian rival, Louis XI of France ! Edward was a popular and very able king. While he lacked foresight and was at times cursed by bad judgement, he possessed an uncanny understanding of his most useful subjects, and the vast majority of those who served him remained unwaveringly loyal until his death.

England, Elizabeth I silver 'milled' Halfcrown of 1601

Stock code: CM001068
£6,300
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown, Half
Date/mint mark: Mintmark '1' – 1601
Type Seventh issue.
Ref. no: N 2013; S 2583.

Obv. Crowned bust left with intricate bodice, 'ELIZABETH D G ANG FRA ET HIBER REGINA'. Rev. Royal Arms on cross fourchee, 'POSVI DEVM ADIVTOREM MEVM', (I have made God my helper)
35mm, 14.9g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine, reverse better.

This coin is well struck and very nicely patinated , especially on the reverse. The die work is very good and with this strong strike has resulted in marvellous and attractive detail to Elizabeth's portrait – the clarity of her features, the intricacy of her bodice and with little wear, all in sharp definition. This is a very good example and a fantastic contemporary portrait of this iconic Tudor queen.

England, Elizabeth I large gold Sovereign (30 shillings) issued 1592 – 1593. Attractive example.

Stock code: CM001059
£16,750
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603)
Denomination/metal: Gold Sovereign
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Tun' – Feb. 1592 – Jun. 1593.
Type Second issue, Second period.
Ref. no: Schneider 783; N 2003 S 2529.

Obv. Elizabeth, crowned and wearing ceremonial robes, seated facing on throne bearing orb and sceptre, portcullis at her feet, 'ELIZABETH D'G' ANG' FRA' ET HIB' REGINA'. Rev. Royal Arms in centre of Tudor rose, 'A DNO FACTV' EST ISTVDET EST MIRAB' INOCVL' NRS', (This is the Lord's doing and is marvellous in our eyes'.
42mm, 15.32g. GVF - Good Very Fine, a little weak to the right of her chin. Small privy mark (cross) lightly scratched on her right shoulder).

Large, splendid and rare gold Thirty shillings piece of Elizabeth, called a sovereign because it portrays the sovereign in full length. Very good condition although just al little weakly struck at Elizabeth's chin – if it were strong here then the coin would be two to three times this price. Apart from this natural striking weakness it is a very good coin and the detail on the reverse is very crisp and strong.

England, Charles I silver Crown, struck during Civil War at Truro 1642 – 1643.

Stock code: CM001063
£1,500
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Rose' – 1642-43.
Type Truro Mint
Ref. no: S 3045.

Obv. King crowned and armoured on horse left, sash flying out, 'CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT FRA ET HI REX'. Rev. Round, garnished Royal Arms, CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO' (I reign under the auspice of Christ).
42mm, 28.82g. VF - Very Fine, upper bust a little weakly struck

These coins are normally quickly and badly struck but this example exhibits very little wear, a full legend with a very well struck reverse. However the upper bust of Charles is a little weak but the detail in the horse is very good. This coin is a better specimen than the plate coin in 'Coins of England'. When the Civil War began in 1642, the Tower mint fell into the hands of Parliament and Charles was forced to open a mints in Royalist held western England at Shrewsbury, Bristol and Oxford Truro and finally Exeter. (1642 -46). In 1643 the king was already minting coins in Truro and on 4 September, after a siege, Exeter surrendered to Prince Maurice and the city remained in Royalist hands till 9 April 1646. On 3 January 1644 Sir Richard Vyvyan received a Royal Commission to set up a mint in Exeter;

Italy, Vittorio Emanuele II large gold 100 lira piece 1864, Torino. Excesively rare – only 579 struck!

Stock code: CM001018
£17,500
Country: Italy
King (reign): Vittorio Emanuele II, 1861 – 1878
Denomination/metal: Gold Lira, 100
Date/mint mark: 1864
Type Torino Mint issue
Ref. no: Mont 126; Pag 451; F 8.

Obv. Bare head left, VITTORIO EMANUELE II'. Rev. Crowned arms in laurel wreath, 'REGNO D'ITALIA'.
34mm, 32.22g. EF - Extremely Fine, bright (old cleaning) with normal bag marks.

The brightness of this coin indicates it may have been lightly cleaned in antiquity. However, it is excessively rare with a mintage of only 579 pieces !!! It is large and iconic – the largest coin issued by Vittorio Emanuele II and consequently, much sort after. Even taking into account its brightness it is still very desirable and very rarely comes onto the market. It is one of the key coins of the Italian milled series – a very popular area.

Sultanate of Gujarat, Nasir al-Din Mahmud Shah I gold tanka dated 899h (1493).

Stock code: CM001027
£4,900
Country: India, Sultanate of Gujarat
King (reign): Nasir al-Din Mahmud Shah I, 1458 – 1511
Denomination/metal: Gold Tanka
Date/mint mark: 899h (1493).
Type Muhammadabad 'urf Champanir Mint
Ref. no: G&G G77.

Obv. Persian script with ruler's name, most of outer legend off flan as usual. Rev. Persian script in plain circular birder.
23mm, 11.43g. AEF - About Extremely Fine, well struck.

This is a very rare coin with a very clearly struck date - and in this superb condition is outstanding and desirable. Sultan Abu'l Fath Nasir al-Din Mahmud Shah I, popularly known as Mahmud Begada was the most prominent sultan of Gujarat. He was the great-grandson of Ahmad Shah I, the founder of the Muzaffarid dynasty and of the city of Ahmedabad (Ahmed Aabad) in the present-day state of Gujarat. Mahmud Shah was known to be quite religious and expanded the territory of the Gujarat Sultanate to its maximum and ruled for 43 years. He titled himself, Sultân al-Barr, Sultân al-Bahr, 'Sultan of the Land, Sultan of the Sea'. He also founded city which is called Mahemdabad, sometimes also spelt as 'Memdavad' (It is situated on the main railway-line between Ahmedabad and Mumbai).

England, Henry V. Gold Noble struck at London between 1413 & 1422.

Stock code: CM001180
£3,800
Country: England
King (reign): Henry V
Denomination/metal: Gold Noble
Date/mint mark: mm. pierced cross, 1413 - 1422
Type Class 'E'
Ref. no: N 1373; S 1744.

Obv. King in ship holding shield of Royal Arms and sword, annulet by sword arm, trefoil by shield, trefoil stops, 'HENRIC' DI GRA' REX ANGL' Z FRANC' DNS hYB'. Rev. Cross fleuree with 'h' in centre and crowned lions 'passant guardant' in angles, pellet under last spandrel, mullet after IhC, 'Ih'C AVT TRANSIENS PER MEDIV' ILLORV' IBAT' (But Jesus, passing through the midst of them, went on His way).
32mm, 6.86g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck but on a small flan. Small flaw running just through the legend into prow of ship (three o' clock on obv.).

Although on a slightly small flan this coin is in very good condition indeed – strongly struck with all details clear – especially the king's face and arms. The small flaw that three o' clock is hardly discernible and doesn't really detract that much form the 'eye appeal' of the piece. The nobles of Henry V are very similar to those of the previous reign – other than the development of privy marks which abound on this coin (annulets, pellet and trefoil).

Princely State of Hyderabad, Afzal ad-Daula gold Mohur dated regnal year 18 1273h (1857), mint of Hyderabad.

Stock code: CM001042
£650
Country: India, Princely State of Hyderabad
King (reign): Afzal ad-Daula, 1857 – 1869
Denomination/metal: Gold Mohur
Date/mint mark: Regnal year 18 (of previous monarch), 1273h (1857).
Type Hyderabad Mint
Ref. no: KM C96.

Obv. Persian script - Rulers's titles and date, However in the previous monarch's name 'Bahadur Shah II'. Rev. Persian script - mint epithet, regnal year – but of previous monarch.
21mm, 11.16g. EF - Extremely Fine

Good condition and interesting as although struck in the first year of Afzal ad-Daula's reign, this coin continuES the name of the previous monarch with his regnal year ! Afzal ad-Daula's realm was divided into five 'subahs' and sixteen districts; each subah was headed by a Subedar and each district by a Taluqdar. Reforms during his reign, by his Prime Minister Salar Jung, included the establishment of a governmental central treasury in 1855. He also reformed the Hyderabad revenue and judicial systems, instituted a postal service and constructed the first rail and telegraph networks. In 1861 he was awarded the Star of India.

Anglo-Gallic, Henry VI gold Salut d'Or (22s. 6d.), issued in Normandy between 1433 and 1444.

Stock code: CM001181
£1,750
Country: England
King (reign): Henry VI (1422 - 1461)
Denomination/metal: Gold Salut d'Or
Date/mint mark: 1433 - 1444
Type Rouen mint, Second Type
Ref. no: Elias 270c.

Obv. The Arms of France and England born by the Virgin Mary (left) and the angel Gabriel right and the word 'AVE' under sun's rays between them, 'HENRICVS DEI GRA FRACORV Z AGLIE REX'. 'Lion' mintmark at beginning of legend. Rev. Latin cross dividing fleur de lis and leopard (lion) passant guardant, 'h' below, 'XPCV VINCIT XPC REGNAT XPC IMPERAT', (Christ conquers, Christ rules, Christ commands).
27mm, 3.47g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine, well struck – a little doubly in parts of obv. Legend.

Handsome coin struck in France for the Lancastrian king of both England and France. We know that this piece was struck by the Rouen mintmaster Etienne Marcel because of his privy mark, a pellet within an annulet, under the last letter of both obverse and reverse legends and are recorded as having been issued between March 1433 and October 1444. Marvellous iconography for the unification of both countries. In 1422 the year old king of England inherited the French throne through his mad grandfather Charles VI of France. Under the regency of the Duke of Bedford Henry soon issued coins at various French mints and this one was struck at Rouen which is denoted by the lion mintmark at the beginning of the legend. Ten years later Joan of Arc would make an appearance which would eventually loosen the English grip on France until by 1436 only Normandy and part of Maine remained in Henry's control.

England, Gold Laurel (20/-) of James I - issued between 1621 & 1623.

Stock code: CM001185
£2,900
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): James I (1603 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Laurel
Date/mint mark: mm. thistle, 1621 - 1623
Type Third Coinage, 3rd. Bust
Ref. no: S 2638A.

Obv. Laureate, draped bust of James left, denomination 'XX' behind, 'IACOBVS D'G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms on cross fourchee, 'FACIAM EOS IN GENTEM VNAM', (I will make them into one nation).
35mm, 9.06g. AVF - About Very Fine, well struck.

Not very rare issue and exhibiting some wear - however, this piece has a well struck detailed portrait with all legends readable - also very nice even light toning and large flan thus desirable. In 1619 there was a currency reform and new 20 shillings piece was reduced in weigh making the former coins worth 22 shillings. To make it easy to differentiate between the two coins this new lighter coin was issued with James facing left - the other direction - and wearing a laurel wreath rather than a crown. Consequently it became known as a 'Laurel'.

England, Spectacular and large gold Rose-Ryal (30/-) of James I, struck between 1605 & 1606.

Stock code: CM001172
£15,000
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): James I (1603 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Rose Ryal
Date/mint mark: mm. rose; 1605 - 1606
Type Second Coinage
Ref. no: Schneider 10 ; N 2079; S 2613.

Obv. King enthroned in state robes holding orb and sceptre, Portcullis at feet, 'IACOBVS D G MAG BRIT FRAN ET HIBER REX'. Rev. Royal Arms on Tudor Rose, 'A DNO FACTVM EST ISTVD ET EST MIRAB IN OCVLIS NRIS', (This is the Lord's doing, and marvellous in our eyes).
41mm, 13.42g. AVF - Almost Very Fine, well struck so although some wear, in fact all details strong.

Very splendid and spectacular coin struck in the style of James’s Tudor predecessors - which denomination was discontinued after 1624’. It's Tudor style can be clearly seen in the large full-rose reverse and the monarch enthroned in full regalia on the obverse – a coin first introduced by Henry VII at the end of the 16th. Century. On inheriting the Tudor throne James Stuart was keen to illustrate the handsome example – well struck, good clear definition – particularly in his facial features, clothing, rose petals and both obv. and rev. legends. The coinage of James I is particularly diverse and this piece must count as one of the most splendid making it very desirable.

Mughal Empire, Ahmad Shah Bahadur gold Mohur dated regnal 116?h (1750s), mint of Delhi.

Stock code: CM001039
£750
Country: India, Mughal Empire
King (reign): Alamgir II, 1754 – 1759
Denomination/metal: Gold Mohur
Date/mint mark: No regnal year and incomplete date (1750s).
Type Dar al-Khilifat, Shahjahanabad Mint (Delhi).
Ref. no: KM 467.10.

Obv. Persian script – Rulers's titles and incomplete date. Rev. Persian script - mint epithet, no regnal year.
21mm, 10.86g. EF - Extremely Fine, well struck.

Very good condition, well struck, large flan but with incomplete date – very attractive piece of this only six year emperor. Ahmed Shah Bahadur inherited a much weakened Mughal state. When Ahmed Shah Bahadur came to power the rule of the Mughal Empire was collapsing, furthermore his administrative weaknesses eventually led to the rise of his Vizier. He was emperor in title for six years, but left all affairs to state to rivalling factions. He was deposed by the Vizier Imad-ul-Mulk and later had his eyes gouged out along with his mother. After his overthrow, he was imprisoned at the Salimgarh Fort where he stayed for the rest of his life, finally dying in 1775 at the age of 50 during the reign of Emperor Shah Alam II. One of his sons, Bidar Bakhsh reigned briefly in 1788.

England, Edward VI large gold Sovereign issued at Southwark between 1549 & 1550.

Stock code: CM001176
£17,500
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Edward IV (1471 - 1483)
Denomination/metal: Gold Sovereign
Date/mint mark: mm. 'Y', 1549 - 1550
Type Second period, Southwark Mint.
Ref. no: Schneider 685; N 1906; S 2433.

Obv. Crowned King seated in throne, facing, 'EDWARD ; VI : D' G' AGL' FRAN' ET HIB' REX'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms with lion and griffon supporters 'ER' in cartouche below. 'IHS AVTEM TRANSIENS PER ME' DO ILLORV' IBAT', (But Jesus, passing through the midst of them, went His way).
36mm, 10.11g. AVF - Almost Extremely Fine, some wear but generally well struck. A little tooling in one area of the field between lower centre and right scroll on rev.

This sovereign of 20 shillings issued in Southwark during the first part of the Boy King's reign, ie when he was only ten years of age, is a superb contemporary portrait of Henry VIII's sickly son Edward VI. A little weakly struck at his face, otherwise other details clear. This was the first of three types of gold Sovereign depicting the boy King Edward VI dating to 1550. This second period coinage was only issued once the King was satisfied that the coinage could be sustained at a higher fineness of gold than his Father's debased issues. Therefore this Sovereign was issued at 22 carat fineness (0.917 fine), which we still use for British gold coinage today, and a 20-Shilling face value, though it weighed only just over 169 grains (10.977g), as the country continued to recover from the extravagance of Henry VIII. This example was struck at the Southwark mint where Sir John Yorke was the Under-Treasurer, hence the use of his surname initial 'Y' for the mintmark.

England, Henry VII. Gold Angel (6s/8d.), struck 1505 to 1509.

Stock code: CM001183
£2,250
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Henry VII (1485 - 1509)
Denomination/metal: Gold Angel
Date/mint mark: mm. pheon, 1505 - 1509
Type Type 5
Ref. no: Schneider 542; n 1698; S 2187.

Obv. The angel St. Michael spearing fallen dragon like devil, 'HENRIC DI GRA REX ANGL Z FR'. Rev. Ancient ship with central mast a cross upon which is the Royal Arms, 'h' and rose either side. 'PER CRVCE TVA SALVA NOS XPE RED', (By the cross save us, Oh Christ our Redeemer).
28mm, 5.03g. AVF - About Very Fine, well struck.

Some wear but all the main features visible – pretty little coin. The angel had been issued for nearly a hundred years but towards the turn of the century the design of St. Michael was changed from a fairly 'elfish' feathered figure to a winged knight in renaissance armour as seen here. The Lancastrian Henry (VII) Tudor married Yorkist Edward IV's daughter thereby bringing together the red and white roses to form the 'Tudor Rose' and thus ending the 'Wars of the Roses' which had devastated England for 50 years.

Scotland, Charles I silver twelve-shillings, Intermediate Issue 1637 – 1642.

Stock code: CM001103
£375
Country: Scotland King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Shillings, Twelve
Type Third Coinage, Intermediate Issue
Ref. no: S 5559.

Obv. Crowned bust left, denomination 'XII' behind, CAR D G MAG BRITAN FR ET HIB REX'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms dividing crowned 'CR', small thistle above crown, QVE DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET' (What God hath joined together let no man put asunder).
31mm, 5.81g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck, weight adjustment marks.

Beautifully detailed bust and good example of this 'Intermediate' issue of superior coins issued while Nicholas Briot was working at the Edinburgh Mint. Charles I had sent the French die engraver up to Edinburgh to sort the coinage out in 1635 as 'Master of the Scottish Mint' and a few years later he was joined by his son-in-law John Falconer who eventually succeeded him in 1646. However, this series of coins was engraved either by Briot or Falconer under his father-in-law's direction, in the early years of 1637 – 1642.

England, Henry VIII. Gold Angel (6s/8d.), struck 1509 to 1526.

Stock code: CM001179
£3,750
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Henry VIII (1509 - 1547)
Denomination/metal: Gold Angel
Date/mint mark: mm. crowned portcullis, 1509 - 1526
Type First Coinage
Ref. no: N 1760; S 1760.

Obv. The angel St. Michael spearing fallen dragon like devil, 'HENRIC VIII DI GRA REX AGL Z FRAN'. Rev. Ancient ship with central mast a cross upon which is the Royal Arms, 'h' and rose either side. 'PER CRVCE TVA SALVA NOS XPE REDE', (By the cross save us, Oh Christ our Redeemer).
28mm, 5.14g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck on a large flan.

A little wear but strongly struck so that all the main features and letters in the legend are very visible. Henry VIII was the second monarch of the House of Tudor, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Very handsome coin of this well-known king. Besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. Henry's struggles with Rome led to the separation of the Church of England from papal authority, the Dissolution of Monasteries and establishing himself as the Supreme Head of the church of England Yet he remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings, even after his excommunication from the Catholic Church. Henry oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 - 1542. He ruled with absolute power and his desire to provide England with a male heir - which stemmed partly from personal vanity and partly because he believed a daughter, would be unable to consolidate the Tudor dynasty and the fragile peace that existed following the Wars of the Roses - led to the two things that Henry is remembered for: his six marriages, and the English reformation, which made England a mostly Protestant nation. In later life he became morbidly obese and his health suffered; his public image is frequently depicted as one of a lustful, egotistical, harsh, and insecure king.

England, Henry VI. Gold Noble, struck at Calais between 1422 & 1430.

Stock code: CM001178
£5,850
Country: England
King (reign): Henry VI (1422 - 1461)
Denomination/metal: Gold Noble
Date/mint mark: mm. lis, 1422 - 1430
Type Annulet Issue, Calais Mint
Ref. no: Schneider 300; N 1515; S 1803.

Obv. King in ship holding shield of Royal Arms and sword, annulet by sword arm, flag on stern, trefoil stops,'HENRIC' DI GRA' REX ANGL' Z FRANC' DNS hYB'. Rev. Cross fleuree with 'h' in centre and crowned lions 'passant guardant' in angles, annulet in first spandrel, mullet after IhC, 'Ih'C AVT TRANSIENS PER MEDIVM ILLORV' IBAT' (But Jesus, passing through the midst of them, went on His way).
34mm, 6.82g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck on a large flan.

Large flan and well struck - this is a superb coin. It has seen very little wear and the obverse is a splendid representation of a medieval king and English sea-power. All the other details are beautifully crisp and clear, especially the ornate Gothic cross on the reverse, and is thus so rare and a beautiful early fifteenth century work of art! Henry was a child of only nine months when he came to the throne, thus making him the youngest person ever to succeed to the English throne. Two months later, on 21 October 1422, he became King of France upon his grandfather Charles VI's death in agreement with the terms of the Treaty of Troyes in 1420. His mother, Catherine of Valois, was then 20 years old and, as Charles VI's daughter, was viewed with considerable suspicion! His father's brothers were appointed regents until he came of age and this particular coin was struck under the regency of John Duke of Bedford.

Japan, Tokugawa Shogunate. Gold (manen) Koban, issued 1860 to 1867.

Stock code: CM001186
£1,250
Country: Japan
King (reign): Tokugawa Shogunate, 1600 – 1868
Denomination/metal: Gold Koban
Date/mint mark: 1860 - 1867
Type Last issue
Ref. no: Cr 22d; Fr 17.

Obv. Fan-shaped recesses either end hold Pawlonia flowers (Chrysanthemum), below - two rectangular recesses each containing Japanese characters. Rev. Three small punches of a Japanese character.
35mm, 3.27g. GVF - Good very Fine.

These large oval coins were the last that the Tokugawa Shogunate produced. The Tokugawa Shogunate was a feudal military dictatorship in Japan that lasted from 1603 to 1868. Samurais, who were essentially professional warriors, were the primary leaders in this period, but all of them were governed and ultimately controlled by shoguns from the Tokugawan clan. The Emperor was considered the official leader of Japan, and for all official purposes the Shogunate acted merely as his administrative arm. In practice, however, the Shogunate controlled basically all of the social, political, economic, and environmental policies of the time. During this period the emperor was basically a figurehead who had to retain the people’s graces to stay in power, but wasn’t able to do much without someone from the Tokugawa house’s permission. In this way the Shogunate exercised a great deal of power, often through little more than influence. In the 1850s and 60s improved trade relations, many of which were illegal, changed things. It became very difficult to reconcile the commercial and capitalised society that the West brought with the military society of the Shogunate, and the clan ultimately lost power in favour of more democratic and flexible methods of government. The period that followed is known as the “Meiji Restoration,” and it was during this time in 1868 that the Emperor was returned to a position of real power and authority.

England, Charles I. 'Second Issue' Silver milled sixpence issued 1638 and 1639.

Stock code: CM001177
£800
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny, Six (Sixpence)
Date/mint mark: mm. 'Anchor', 1638 - 1639
Type Briot's Second Milled Issue
Ref. no: S 2860.

Obv. Crowned bust left, denomination (VI) behind, 'CAROLVS DG MAG BRIT FR ET HIB REX'. Rev. Royal Arms on cross recerclee,'CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO', (I reign under the auspice of Christ).
25mm, 2.93g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine, light correction marks on obv., very attractive iridescent toning to lustre.

Superb example of this Second Milled sixpence with fantastic iridescent lustre of blues and pinks. Charles employed the Frenchman Nicholas Briot who issued his machine made coins (ie milled rather than hammered) as an experiment in 1631 and 1632 and then again, after his return from Scotland, in 1638 to 1639 when this coin was made. This example exhibits virtually no wear although there are the normal correction marks - but otherwise has a fantastic portrait of the king. Although he produced superior coins that were well and precision struck, Briot and his milling machines were unpopular at the Tower of London. However in 1633 Charles had made Briot 'Chief Engraver' and a few years later Briot again attempted mechanisation at the Mint. Unfortunately, this second attempt was shelved after only a few months by the Civil War and thus in this piece we have not only a very rare and superiorly produced coin but also an important 'landmark' in the issue of milled British coins which would not be fully instituted at the Mint for a further thirty years.

England, Henry VIII..Gold Angel (6s/8d.) struck 1509 to 1526.

Stock code: CM001184
£2,150
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Henry VIII (1509 - 1547)
Denomination/metal: Gold Angel
Date/mint mark: mm. castle, 1509 - 1526
Type First Coinage
Ref. no: Schneider 560; N 1760; S 2265.

Obv. The angel St. Michael spearing fallen dragon like devil, 'HENRIC VIII DI GRA REX AGL Z FR'. Rev. Ancient ship with central mast a cross upon which is the Royal Arms, 'h' and rose either side. 'PER CRVCE TVA SALVA NOS XPE REDET', (By the cross save us, Oh Christ our Redeemer).
28mm, 5.08g. AVF - About Very Fine, well struck.

Some wear but strongly struck so that all the main features and letters in the legend are very visible. Henry VIII was the second monarch of the House of Tudor, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Very handsome coin of this well-known king. Besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. Henry's struggles with Rome led to the separation of the Church of England from papal authority, the Dissolution of Monasteries and establishing himself as the Supreme Head of the church of England Yet he remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings, even after his excommunication from the Catholic Church. Henry oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 - 1542. He ruled with absolute power and his desire to provide England with a male heir—which stemmed partly from personal vanity and partly because he believed a daughter, would be unable to consolidate the Tudor dynasty and the fragile peace that existed following the Wars of the Roses - led to the two things that Henry is remembered for: his six marriages, and the English reformation , which made England a mostly Protestant nation. In later life he became morbidly obese and his health suffered; his public image is frequently depicted as one of a lustful, egotistical, harsh, and insecure king.