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England - Charles I, Gold Triple Unite, minted Oxford during the Civil War, 1642

Stock code: CM000481X
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Gold Pounds, Three (Triple Unite)
Date/mint mark: 1642
Type Oxford Mint, 'Declaration'
Ref. no: Schneider 286; N 2381; S 2724

Obv. Half length tall figure of Charles to left, wearing crown and full armour holding a sword and an olive branch. Plumes behind, 'CAROLVS DG MAG BRIT FRAN ET HI REX'. Rev. Declaration in a three line scroll, 'RELIG PROT / LEG ANG / LIBER PAR' (Protestant Religion, Laws of England, Liberty of Parliament), three plumes above with mark of value, date below; around 'EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI' (Let God arise and let the enemy be scattered).
46mm, 27g. GVF - Good Very Fine, strongly struck

TheTripleUnite, valued atsixty shillings, 60/-or three pounds, was the highestEnglishdenomination to be produced. It was struck at the Oxford Mint set up during the first English Civil War of 1642-6 and issued between January and March of 1642 at the hurriedly set up mint at New Inn Hall in Oxford. This huge coin was issued, at least in part, for use as gifts to those whom the King wished to 'cement' to his side in the Civil War. Thus he obverse design for the coin features an armoured bust of Charles I, with broadsword raised, and yet in visual dichotomy he bears an olive branch clutched over his heart. Charles was visually appealing to either nature of the benefactor he was seeking to entice. The bust on this coin is very hawkish which is the earliest type, later he had it changed to a more benevolent softer style. On the reverse he put his famous declaration – uttered in 1642 when he swore to to uphold the Protestant Religion, the laws of England and the freedom of Parliament. Very rare and spectacular coin!

Great Britain - 1739 AD Guineas, Two - (AEF) Milled, Gold

Stock code: CM000323X
Country: Great Britain
King (reign): George II (1723 - 1760)
Denomination/metal: Gold Guineas, Two
Type: Milled Intermediate, laureate head
Ref. no: Schneider 576; S 3668

Obv. Laureate, draped bust left. Rev. Crowned, garnished Royal Arms – Great Britain, France, Ireland and Hanover.
32mm, 16.71g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine, reverse better. Lustre in protected areas of the field, clean coin

Handsome large gold coin of George II, little wear making it a pleasing and desirable coin. George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain and was born and brought up in Northern Germany. As king from 1727, George exercised little control over British domestic policy, which was largely controlled by Great Britain's parliament. As elector, he spent 12 summers in Hanover, where he had more direct control over government policy. He had a difficult relationship with his eldest son, Frederick , who supported the parliamentary opposition. During the War of the Austrian Succession, George participated at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743, and thus became the last British monarch to lead an army into battle. In 1745, supporters of the Stuart and Catholic claimant to the British throne failed to depose George in the last of the Jacobite rebellions. Frederick died unexpectedly in 1751, leaving George's grandson, George III , as heir apparent and ultimately king.

Bank of England, ONE MILLION POUND banknote 1948 - One of only two 'million pound' notes in existence!

Stock code: B000001X
Country: Great Britain
King (reign): George VI - (1936 - 1952)
Denomination/metal: Banknote Pounds, One Million
Date/mint mark: Bank of England

0mm, 0g. VF - Small hole cancellation through signature. Light creases and some handling otherwise good very fine to about extremely fine and extremely rare.

One Million Pounds, 30 August 1948, D 000007, on Bank of England watermarked paper, PAYABLE ON DEMAND, signature of E.E. Bridges, Secretary to the Treasury, bottom right, stamped ‘CANCELLED, 6 OCT. 1948, BANK OF ENGLAND’. Monies received through the Marshall Aid plan after World War II, were subject to strict accountability. The Treasury had to borrow from the Bank of England on a short term basis and to help with the book keeping requested the printing of high value notes. The total order sent to The Bank of England printing works was for Three Hundred Million Pounds in varying denominations, starting from Twenty Five Thousand Pounds. It is believed that the entire issue was subsequently destroyed with the exception of numbers Seven and Eight for One Million Pounds which were presented to the British and American Treasury Secretaries respectively.

England, Charles II cast silver medal issued in 1660 to celebrate the ‘Restitution of the Monarchy’.

Stock code: CM000002X
Country: England
Type: Cast
Ref. no: MI I 453/38; E215

Obv. Draped bust of Charles right Rev. Leafless tree bearing three crowns, under a radiant sun.
35mm, 7.73g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine, good blue tone. Ornate suspension loop

Restoration medal by T. Rawlins. - To be worn by Royalist supporters on the return of the King. Leafless tree represents Royalty deprived of its honours which now with the restoration, will begin to flourish. RARE - USUALLY FOUND VERY WORN.

Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, Rudolph-August silver Three Thalers 1685, Lauthenthal Mines Issue,

Stock code: CM001086
Country: (Germany) Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel
King (reign): Rudolph-August, 1666 – 1685
Denomination/metal: Silver Thalers, Three (Loeser)
Date/mint mark: 1685
Type Lauthenthal Mines issue (Zellerfeld)
Ref. no: Dav (LS) 111; Welter 1834; Duve 3.

Obv. Brunswick Arms with multiple quartering s and ornate crests, 'D G RUDOLPH AUGUSTUS DUX BRUNS ET LUN', (By the Grace of God, Rudolph-Augustus, duke of Brunswick and Luneburg) Small '3' contermark in foliage to left of arms, 'RB' mintmasters initials. Rev. Fortune playing a lute and equipped with a sail proceeds slowly to the left on a snail, 'TU TANDEM ABIECTAM REDDES DEUS ALME SONORAM', (You, Merciful God will finally restore the last sound).
75mm, 76.45g. GVF - Good Very Fine. Lightly toned.

Spectacular German three thaler piece (minted to this size and countermarked with a small '3' to the left of the arms. Lauthenthal, a town in the Harz Mountains of modern central Germany, was the site of a famous silver mine called “Lauthenthal’s Luck.” The town was founded in 1538 when iron ore was discovered in the area. After further exploration, the town developed into a successful silver mining operation. These multiple thalers, which depict Lauthenthal and its mine works in careful detail, reveal the mine’s importance to the dukes of Brunswick as a source of great wealth. The young woman on the reverse, standing before a mountain mining scene, is an allegorical depiction of the goddess Fortuna. She plays a lute (“Laute” in German) in her role as the personification of the town of Lauthenthal. The dukes of Brunswick minted these large coins to serve as an overflow fund when Lauthenthal’s rate of production was very high. Landowners in the duchy were required to purchase the thalers according to their means. If the duke needed funding for a war or other emergency, he could ask for the coins to be returned. In exchange, the landowners would receive coins of lower silver purity.

England, Henry VI gold Noble issued London 1422 – 1430

Stock code: CM001091
Country: England
King (reign): Henry VI (1422 - 1461)
Denomination/metal: Gold Noble
Date/mint mark: Annulet by right arm 1422- 30.
Type London Mint, Annulet Issue.
Ref. no: Schneider 274; N 1414; S 1799.

Obv. King in ship holding shield of Royal Arms and sword, annulet by sword arm, lis after name, trefoil stops, 'HENRIC' DI' GRA' REX ANGL' Z FRANC' DNS HYB'. Rev. Cross 'fleurdelise' with crowned leopards in angles, 'h' in centre, all within tressure of eight arches, lis in outer angles annulets in legend of rev. , 'IhC AVT TRANSIENS PER MEDIVM ILLORVM IBAT' (But Jesus, passing through the midst of them, went on his way).
34mm, 6.96g. AEF - About Extremely Fine, well struck on a large flan.

Particularly good specimen, well struck and beautifully crisp and clear and is thus so rare and a fantastic early fifteenth century work of art ! Pretty coin ! Henry was a child of only nine months when he came to the throne, thus making him the youngest person ever to succeed to the English throne. Two months later, on 21 October 1422, he became King of France upon his grandfather Charles VI's death in agreement with the Treaty of Troyes in 1420. His mother, Catherine of Valois, was then 20 years old and, as Charles VI's daughter, was viewed with considerable suspicion ! His father's brothers were appointed regents until he came of age and this particular coin was struck under the regency of John Duke of Bedford.

England, Elizabeth I large gold Sovereign (30 shillings) issued 1592 – 1593. Attractive example.

Stock code: CM001059
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603)
Denomination/metal: Gold Sovereign
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Tun' – Feb. 1592 – Jun. 1593.
Type Second issue, Second period.
Ref. no: Schneider 783; N 2003 S 2529.

Obv. Elizabeth, crowned and wearing ceremonial robes, seated facing on throne bearing orb and sceptre, portcullis at her feet, 'ELIZABETH D'G' ANG' FRA' ET HIB' REGINA'. Rev. Royal Arms in centre of Tudor rose, 'A DNO FACTV' EST ISTVDET EST MIRAB' INOCVL' NRS', (This is the Lord's doing and is marvellous in our eyes'.
42mm, 15.32g. GVF - Good Very Fine, a little weak to the right of her chin. Small privy mark (cross) lightly scratched on her right shoulder).

Large, splendid and rare gold Thirty shillings piece of Elizabeth, called a sovereign because it portrays the sovereign in full length. Very good condition although just al little weakly struck at Elizabeth's chin – if it were strong here then the coin would be two to three times this price. Apart from this natural striking weakness it is a very good coin and the detail on the reverse is very crisp and strong.

England, Charles I silver Crown, struck during Civil War at Truro 1642 – 1643.

Stock code: CM001063
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Rose' – 1642-43.
Type Truro Mint
Ref. no: S 3045.

Obv. King crowned and armoured on horse left, sash flying out, 'CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT FRA ET HI REX'. Rev. Round, garnished Royal Arms, CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO' (I reign under the auspice of Christ).
42mm, 28.82g. VF - Very Fine, upper bust a little weakly struck

These coins are normally quickly and badly struck but this example exhibits very little wear, a full legend with a very well struck reverse. However the upper bust of Charles is a little weak but the detail in the horse is very good. This coin is a better specimen than the plate coin in 'Coins of England'. When the Civil War began in 1642, the Tower mint fell into the hands of Parliament and Charles was forced to open a mints in Royalist held western England at Shrewsbury, Bristol and Oxford Truro and finally Exeter. (1642 -46). In 1643 the king was already minting coins in Truro and on 4 September, after a siege, Exeter surrendered to Prince Maurice and the city remained in Royalist hands till 9 April 1646. On 3 January 1644 Sir Richard Vyvyan received a Royal Commission to set up a mint in Exeter;

England, Charles I silver hammered Shilling issued between 1636 and 1638.

Stock code: CM001077
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Shilling
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Tun' – 1636 – 38.
Type Tower Mint, Group 'D', Type 3a.
Ref. no: S 2791.

Obv. Crowned, draped bust left, denomination behind, 'CAROLVS D G MA BR FR ET HI REX'. Rev. Oval, garnished Royal Arms, 'CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO', (I reign under the auspice of Christ).
29mm, 6.07g. VF - Very Fine or better – well struck. No weak areas, lightly toned.

Not rare (as Charles shillings go) but beautiful condition – well struck with all details and legend crisp and clear. At this period hammered coin production did not have very good quality control apart from getting the weight right, but in this piece we see a carefully struck coin with complete legend both sides, good facial features, clear Royal Arms. In short a desirable and uncommon piece.

England, Oliver Cromwell silver shilling (proposed !) dated 1658.

Stock code: CM001072
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Oliver Cromwell (Lord Protector) (1653 - 1658)
Denomination/metal: Silver Shilling
Date/mint mark: 1658
Type Proposed Milled Issue.
Ref. no: S 3228.

Obv. Laureate and draped bust left, with die flaw at late stage, legend and toothed border, OLIVAR D GR P ANG SCO HIB & PRO'. Rev. Crowned quartered shield of arms of the Protectorate, date
Above, toothed border 'PAX QVAERITVR BELLO'. (Peace is sought by war)
28mm, 6.08g. UC - Uncirculated, attractive grey toning with a little cabinet friction on highest points.

Superb condition and marvellous patination – would be pristine if not for the very slight cabinet friction on the highest points. Nevertheless, outstanding, desirable and rare. Made from Thomas Simon's coin mills, this series of some of the first machine made coins bearing Oliver Cromwell's portrait were made at the end of Cromwell's life. Authorised in 1656, they were issued in 1657 and 58, they are really patterns and did not generally circulate – however they are interesting in the respect that they indicate that the Lord Protector was 'assuming the purple' and may well have issued coins bearing his portrait with his crowned (!!!) arms had he not died !

England, Elizabeth I silver 'milled' Halfcrown of 1601

Stock code: CM001068
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown, Half
Date/mint mark: Mintmark '1' – 1601
Type Seventh issue.
Ref. no: N 2013; S 2583.

Obv. Crowned bust left with intricate bodice, 'ELIZABETH D G ANG FRA ET HIBER REGINA'. Rev. Royal Arms on cross fourchee, 'POSVI DEVM ADIVTOREM MEVM', (I have made God my helper)
35mm, 14.9g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine, reverse better.

This coin is well struck and very nicely patinated , especially on the reverse. The die work is very good and with this strong strike has resulted in marvellous and attractive detail to Elizabeth's portrait – the clarity of her features, the intricacy of her bodice and with little wear, all in sharp definition. This is a very good example and a fantastic contemporary portrait of this iconic Tudor queen.

England, Edward IV gold Ryal (10 shillings), light coinage, London mint, 1464 – 1470.

Stock code: CM001060
Country: England, House of York
King (reign): Edward IV (1461 - 1470)
Denomination/metal: Gold Ryal
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Crown' on rev. only – 1465 – 70.
Type Second or 'Light coinage'.
Ref. no: Schneider 363v; N 1549 S 1950.

Obv. Crowned king in armour holding sword and Royal Arms within an antique ship with a rose in the middle and banner containing an 'E' on the stern, 'EDWARD DI GRA REX ANGL S FRANC DNS IB'. Rev. Cross 'fleurdelise' with crowned leopards in angles, rose on star in centre, all within tressure of eight arches, lis in outer angles, no mm; 'IHC AVT' TRANSIENS PER MEDIVM ILLORVM IBAT', (But Jesus, passing in the midst of them, went his way).
34mm, 7.59g. GVF - Good Extremely Fine, well and centrally struck on a small flan.

Attractive piece with details sharp and clear – especially king's facial features, details of the boat and intricate cross on the other side. Issued in the middle of the wars of the Roses, a very turbulent time of civil war in England. Edward was an extremely capable and daring military commander and destroyed the House of Lancaster in a series of spectacular military victories - he was never defeated on the field of battle. Despite his occasional (if serious) political setbacks — usually at the hands of his great Machiavellian rival, Louis XI of France ! Edward was a popular and very able king. While he lacked foresight and was at times cursed by bad judgement, he possessed an uncanny understanding of his most useful subjects, and the vast majority of those who served him remained unwaveringly loyal until his death.

England, James I gold Unite (20 shillings) issued 1604 – 1605.

Stock code: CM001061
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): James VI (1567 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, Twenty (Unite)
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Lis' – Nov. 1604 – Jun. 1605.
Type Second Issue.

Obv. Crowned king in full armour right holding orb and sceptre, IACOBVS DG MAG BRIT FRANC ET HIB REX'. Rev. Crowned and garnished Royal Arms dividing 'IR', FACIAM EOS IN GENTEM VNAM'. (I will make them into one nation).
37mm, 9.84g. AVF - About Very Fine, well struck but with a little wear.

Although this coin has seen a little wear, because it was strongly stuck all the main features are still visible and it is still a very attractive piece of this first Stuart monarch of England. Called a 'Unite' because of James's wish to 'unite' the nations of England and Scotland – which sentiment he chose to be the reverse legend of his twenty Shillings piece. This is a concept that is particularly relevant today !

England, Charles II silver Shilling 1663.

Stock code: CM001105
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles II (1660 - 1685)
Denomination/metal: Silver Shilling
Date/mint mark: 1663
Type First Bust
Ref. no: ESC 1022; S 3371.

Obv. Laurete, draped bust of Charles right, 'CAROLVS II DEI GRATIA'. Rev. Cruciform Royal Arms with entwined 'C's in angles and Garter Cross in centre, 'MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX'.
25mm, 6.02g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine, attractive toning with traces of original lustre, small edge nick on rev. rim.

Very pretty example – attractively toned, with considerable original lustre

Scotland, Charles I silver twelve-shillings, Intermediate Issue 1637 – 1642.

Stock code: CM001103
Country: Scotland King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Shillings, Twelve
Type Third Coinage, Intermediate Issue
Ref. no: S 5559.

Obv. Crowned bust left, denomination 'XII' behind, CAR D G MAG BRITAN FR ET HIB REX'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms dividing crowned 'CR', small thistle above crown, QVE DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET' (What God hath joined together let no man put asunder).
31mm, 5.81g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck, weight adjustment marks.

Beautifully detailed bust and good example of this 'Intermediate' issue of superior coins issued while Nicholas Briot was working at the Edinburgh Mint. Charles I had sent the French die engraver up to Edinburgh to sort the coinage out in 1635 as 'Master of the Scottish Mint' and a few years later he was joined by his son-in-law John Falconer who eventually succeeded him in 1646. However, this series of coins was engraved either by Briot or Falconer under his father-in-law's direction, in the early years of 1637 – 1642.

Scotland, James VI silver Ten shillings 1582.

Stock code: CM001101
Country: Scotland King (reign): James VI (1567 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Silver Shillings, Ten
Date/mint mark: 1582
Type Fourth Coinage
Ref. no: S 5490.

Obv. Crowned half bust of James left, holding sword in right hand, 'IACOBVS 6 DEI GRATIA REX SCOTORVM'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms dividing 'IR' and denomination 'X S', 'HONOR REGIS IVDICIVM DILIGIT', (The king's power loveth judgement).
31mm, 7.79g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck and nicely toned.

Outstanding ten shillings of this young Scottish king – beautiful detail in facial features and bust. Rare, spectacular with a very good provenances (Dakers, Langford and Hird collections) - thus desirable and much rarer than the larger 30 shillings piece ! King of Scotland from 1567 as a one year old and England (as James I) from 1603. The son of Mary Queen of Scots and her second husband, Lord Darnley, he succeeded to the Scottish throne on the enforced abdication of his mother and assumed power in 1583, and this coin was issued just before his majority when he was only seventeen. James's childhood and adolescence were unhappy, abnormal, and precarious; he had various guardians, whose treatment of him differed widely. His education, although thorough, was weighted with Presbyterian and Calvinist political doctrine, and his character – highly intelligent and sensitive, but also fundamentally shallow, vain, and exhibitionist – reacted violently to this. However, initially he established a strong centralized authority, and in 1589 married Anne of Denmark.

England, James I gold Unite (20 shillings). Issued 1606-1607.

Stock code: CM001113
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): James I (1603 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Unite
Date/mint mark: mm. scalllop; 1606-1607
Type Second Coinage
Ref. no: Schneider 24; N 2084; S 2619.

Obv. Crowned, armoured bust of James right, holding orb and sceptre, 'IACOBVS D'G' MAG' BRIT' FRAN' ET HIB' REX'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms dividing 'IR', 'FACIAM EOS IN GENTEM VNAM', (I will make them into one nation).
9.94g. GVF - Good Very Fine, a week area on shoulder and corresponding position (Scottish Arms) on rev.

Particularly attractive coin and splendid contemporary portrait of this first Stuart king – although the piece has seen some wear, due to a strong strike (with the exception of the one small area on James's shoulder/Scottish arms) all the details are clear, particularly the king's facial features and armour .Called a 'Unite' because of James's wish to 'unite' the nations of England and Scotland that is broadcast by the reverse legend. A concept that is particularly relevant today !

Roman Gold Aureus of Augustus, mint Lugdunum. Struck 15-13 BC.

Stock code: CM001115
Country: Roman
Denomination/metal: Gold Aureus
Date/mint mark: 15-13BC, 6h
Type Mint of Lugdunum
Ref. no: RIC 166a; BMC 450; Calico 212

Obv. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, bare head of Augustus facing right. Rev. IMP X (in exergue) bull butting right.
7.81g. EF - An excellent portrait of Augustus struck on a very broad flan, a few light marks, otherwise extremely fine, a very attractive example.

Roman Gold Aureus of Claudius and Agrippina, mint of Rome, struck AD 50-54.

Stock code: CM001116
Country: Roman
Denomination/metal: Gold Aureus
Date/mint mark: AD 50-54
Type Mint of Rome
Ref. no: RIC 80; BMC 72; Calico 396e.

Obv. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM P M TRIB POT PP, laureate head of Claudius facing right Rev. AGRIPPINAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust of Agrippina facing right, wearing a wreath of cornears.
7.56g. AEF - Two excellent portraits, a few light marks, nearly extremely fine and an excellent example of this very rare coin.

Roman Gold Aureus of Commodus, Mint of Rome, struck in AD 192

Stock code: CM001114
Country: Roman
Denomination/metal: Gold Aureus
Date/mint mark: AD 192, 6h
Type Mint of Rome
Ref. no: RIC 238; BMC 746var; Calico 2249.

Obv. L AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Commodus facing right Rev. FELIC COM P M TR P XVII COS VII P P, Felicitas standing left, holding a caduceus and a cornucopiae.
7.38g. EF - Well-struck, lightly toned, a few light marks on obverse edge, a very good portrait, extremely fine and very rare.

Anglo-Saxon England, Eadberht Bishop of London (in the reign of Offa) silver Penny c. 785.

Stock code: CM001106
Country: England, Northumbria
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Date/mint mark: c785
Type Bishop of London issue
Ref. no: N 278; S 911.

Obv. Letters in tree lines divided by beading - 'EAD BERh TEP' (Eadbehrt bishop) Rev. Cross, flower in centre - in angles 'O F M R' (Offa king).
1.23g. GVF - Good very Fine, well struck, lightly patinated

Exceptionally rare coin in outstanding condition. These coins are attributed to having been issued by Eadberht the Bishop of London during the reign of Offa. Most coins of Offa have the moneyer's name on one side but the initials EP after Eadberht's name on this coin must stand for 'Episcopus' (bishop). The exact time which Eadberht held this office is pretty sketchy – but roughly 772/782 to 787/789 when he died. How or why he was allowed to issue coins during the reign of Offa is not really understood however, one theory is that Offa was on very bad terms with Jaenberht the Bishop of Canterbury and in order to diminish this man's authority and power in Southern England, Offa granted the Bishop of London minting rights which were withdrawn once the problem had been solved.

Anglo-Saxon England, 'Light' gold Thrymsa post Crondall type c. 655 – 675.

Stock code: CM001111
Country: England, Anglo-Saxon
Date/mint mark: c. 655 – 675.
Type Post Crondall, Pada Type
Ref. no: Metcalf 82; N 31; S 773.

Obv. Pada type 'A', bust right wearing double pearl diadem, blundered legend. Rev. Small cross with annulet in each angle, legend NOVI ANVSPFAV interrupted by runes for 'PADA'
1.23g. EF - Extremely Fine, rev. a little off centre

Very attractive example of this post Crondall gold thrymsa one of the first Anglo-Saxon gold coins– very pale gold so predominantly silver ! Very rare in this condition. The word 'Pada' was formerly associated with the name of the King Peada of Mercia (died 656), however this has been rejected on chronological designs. The name is now thought to be that of a moneyer or another otherwise unknown ruler. The prototype for the obverse is late Roman and from the obverse legend, very likely a coin of the emperor Gratian (375-383).

Scotland, Splendid gold Rider (100/- Scots) dated 1594.

Stock code: CM000779
Country: Scotland
King (reign): James VI (1567 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, 100
Date/mint mark: 1594
Type Seventh issue.
Ref. no: S 5458

Obv. James, in full armour holding sword and orb, riding a fully caparisoned horse right, 'IACOBVS 6 D G R SCOTORVM'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms, 'SPERO MELIORA' ( I hope hope better things).
28mm, 4.96g. AVF - Almost Very Fine, well struck.

Very splendid Scottish coin, nicknamed the 'rider' this coin was worth 100 shillings Scots This coin was issued just before James became King of England and was brought south by James in 1603 and was made legal tender in England and Wales as 10 shillings. The coinage of James VI is a very large and varied issue – more so than any other Scottish monarch, many new and innovatively designed pieces were introduced during this reign as well as several new denominations. After he inherited the English throne as James I in 1603 the Scottish monetary system was tied to the English system at a rate of 12:1 which was continued until the union of the two crowns as the United Kingdom under Anne in 1707, at which point the Scottish coinage was called in.

Anglo-Gallic, Henry VI. Gold Salut d'Or (22s. 6d.), issued in Normandy shortly after 1423.

Stock code: CM001143
King (reign): Henry VI (1422 - 1461)
Date/mint mark: 1423 - 49
Type St. Lo Mint, 2nd. Type.
Ref. no: Elias271

Obv. The Arms of France and England born by the Virgin Mary (left) and the angel Gabriel right and the word 'AVE' under sun's rays between them, 'HENRICVS DEI GRA FRACORV Z AGLIE REX'. 'Lis' mintmark at beginning of legend. Rev. Latin cross dividing fleur de lis and leopard (lion) passant guardant, 'h' below, 'XPCV VINCIT XPC REGNAT XPC IMPERAT', (Christ conquers, Christ rules, Christ commands).
26mm, 3.49g. EF - Extremely Fine, well struck.

Handsome coin struck in France for the Lancastrian king of both England and France. Marvellous iconography for the unification of both countries. In 1422 the year old king of England inherited the French throne through his mad grandfather Charles VI of France. Under the regency of the Duke of Bedford Henry soon issued coins at various French mints and this one was struck at St. Lo which is denoted by the lis mint mark at the beginning of the legend. Ten years later Joan of Arc would make an appearance which would eventually loosen the English grip on France until by 1436 only Normandy and part of Maine remained in Henry's control.

Great Britain, George III. 'Pattern' Five Guineas by R. Yeo, struck in 1777 - Unique!

Stock code: CM001131
King (reign): George III (1760 - 1820)
Date/mint mark: 1777
Type Pattern 'en medaille', Plain Edge.
Ref. no: cf.W&R.78; cf.L&S.3; cf.S 3723A.

Obv. Laureate bust right with hair extending below bust, 'GEORGIVS III DEI GRATIA'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms in an ornate ogee shield, 'M B F ET H REX F D B ET L D S R I AT ET E', (King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Duke of Brunswick and Luneburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire and Elector).
38mm, 2.105g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine attractively patinated (encapsulated by CGS).

Unique Piece thus the ultimate rarity. Known in gold from a couple of specimens but not in any other metal and thought to be of the hand of Richard Yeo (died 1779). This probably represents a first striking in the production of the pattern coin – a soft whitemetal flan would have been used so as not to harm the dies in any way and thus an initial idea of the realistic appearance coin could be gained. At the beginning of George III's reign the die-engravers Pingo and Yeo, inspired by Tanner, were competing for the commission to design Britain's gold coinage. As it turned out only guineas were issued – probably due to the poor state of the machinery at the Royal Mint. Thus to own a Five Guinea piece of George III all that can be had is a handful of extremely rare patterns such as this.

England, Edward III. Gold Noble, Treaty Period 1351 - 1361.

Stock code: CM001138
King (reign): Edward III (1327 - 1377)
Date/mint mark: 1351 – 61
Type Fourth coinage, Treaty Period, Group 'b'.
Ref. no: Schneider 87; N 1232; S 1503

Obv. King in antique ship holding shield of Royal Arms and sword, annulet before legend, 'EDWARD DEI GRA REX ANGL DNS HYB Z AQT'. Rev. Cross fleureee with 'E' in centre and crowned lions passant guardant in angles, trefoils in spandrels, 'IhC AVTEM TRANSIENS PER MEDIV ILLORVM IBAT' (But Jesus, passing through the midst of them, went on his way).
33mm, 7.74g. AEF - About Extremely Fine, area of legend weakly struck.

Very good example of this large medieval gold coin. Although there is one weak area in the legend – on both sides as the flan just happens to thin at this point. It is full weight and the details and facial features of the king, arms and ship are very crisp. There is an interesting aspect to this coin, for unlike most other English coins of the period, Edward has dropped his claim to France in the obverse legend. This is because after negotiations with France for peace which led to the Treaty of Bretigni in 1360, and anxious to keep the negotiated trading going between the two countries, Edward dropped his claim lest it upset the French. However, after ten years, in 1370, he resumed his claim - and France is proclaimed as an English possession on subsequent English coins for more than three centuries to come!

Great Britain, George II. Gold Five Guineas 1729.

Stock code: CM001130
King (reign): George II (1727 - 1760)
Date/mint mark: 1729 TERTIO
Type Young Head.
Ref. no: S 3663

Obv. Laureate bust left, 'GEORGIVS III DEI GRATIA'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms in an ornate ogee shield, 'M B F ET H REX F D B ET L D S R I AT ET E', (King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Duke of Brunswick and Luneburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire and Elector).
38mm, 41.83g. GVF - Good Very Fine, edge letters a little blundered.

Pleasing coin with a small amount of wear on the raised surfaces of George's curls on the obv. Rev is Extremely Fine. Letters on the edge are a little blundered. George II was the last British monarch to be born outside Britain and the last British Monarch to lead his troops into battle - against the Austrians in South Germany at Dettingen in 1743.

Great Britain, George I. Gold Guinea, 1726.

Stock code: CM001134
King (reign): George I (1714 - 1727)
Date/mint mark: 1726
Type Fifth Bust.
Ref. no: S 3633

Obv. Laureate bust right, 'GEORGIVS D G M BR FR ET HIB REX F D'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms in cruciform, sceptres in angles, star and garter in centre, 'BRVN ET L DVX S R I A TH ET EL', (Duke of Brunswick and Luneburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire and Elector).
25mm, 0.8g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine.

A little wear on some of George's high curls but otherwise a pretty clean and attractive coin. For the first time a British coin carries the arms of Hanover and also George's many European titles.

England, Edward I. Silver Groat 1279 - c1281. 'One of the finest known'.

Stock code: CM001125
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Cross potent',
Type New Coinage, Variery 'F'.
Ref. no: SCBI 39 var G; Allen F6/R37; Fox 2; n 1006; S 1379h

Obv. Crowned bust in quatrefoil of two lines, rosets in angles, triple pellet stops, 'EDWARDVS : DI : GRA : REX : ANGL'. Rev. Long Cross, triple pellets in angles, inner and outer legend, 'DNS HIBN'E DVX AQVT', (Lord of Ireland, duke of Aquitaine'), 'CIVI LONDONIA' (city of London).
29mm, 5.45g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck and attractively patinated.

Outstanding piece, Iconic coin and one of the finest known – certainly the best on the market in the last ten years. In 1279 Edward introduced this large silver fourpence for the first time in England as part of his 'New Coinage'. For some reason it was not a success and it's minting appears to have been abandoned only a few years later in around 1281. Two specimens were found in the Dover Hoard put down in 1295 and from then on there is no hoard evidence which suggests that they did not even circulate by the end of the 1290s. The majority exist today from single finds – but most of these are gilded and/or have soldered mounts on the back which suggests that their primary use, ultimately seems to have been jewellery! Consequently, as well as being extremely rare they normally are found mounted which makes the perfect example even more difficult to find! This is not only a very rare coin but an outstanding example of the first groat issued in England, a denomination which would only be resumed by Edward's grandson some sixty years later in 1351!

Italy, Vittorio Emanuele II large gold 100 lira piece 1864, Torino. Excesively rare – only 579 struck!

Stock code: CM001018
Country: Italy
King (reign): Vittorio Emanuele II, 1861 – 1878
Denomination/metal: Gold Lira, 100
Date/mint mark: 1864
Type Torino Mint issue
Ref. no: Mont 126; Pag 451; F 8.

Obv. Bare head left, VITTORIO EMANUELE II'. Rev. Crowned arms in laurel wreath, 'REGNO D'ITALIA'.
34mm, 32.22g. EF - Extremely Fine, bright (old cleaning) with normal bag marks.

The brightness of this coin indicates it may have been lightly cleaned in antiquity. However, it is excessively rare with a mintage of only 579 pieces !!! It is large and iconic – the largest coin issued by Vittorio Emanuele II and consequently, much sort after. Even taking into account its brightness it is still very desirable and very rarely comes onto the market. It is one of the key coins of the Italian milled series – a very popular area.

Sultanate of Gujarat, Nasir al-Din Mahmud Shah I gold tanka dated 899h (1493).

Stock code: CM001027
Country: India, Sultanate of Gujarat
King (reign): Nasir al-Din Mahmud Shah I, 1458 – 1511
Denomination/metal: Gold Tanka
Date/mint mark: 899h (1493).
Type Muhammadabad 'urf Champanir Mint
Ref. no: G&G G77.

Obv. Persian script with ruler's name, most of outer legend off flan as usual. Rev. Persian script in plain circular birder.
23mm, 11.43g. AEF - About Extremely Fine, well struck.

This is a very rare coin with a very clearly struck date - and in this superb condition is outstanding and desirable. Sultan Abu'l Fath Nasir al-Din Mahmud Shah I, popularly known as Mahmud Begada was the most prominent sultan of Gujarat. He was the great-grandson of Ahmad Shah I, the founder of the Muzaffarid dynasty and of the city of Ahmedabad (Ahmed Aabad) in the present-day state of Gujarat. Mahmud Shah was known to be quite religious and expanded the territory of the Gujarat Sultanate to its maximum and ruled for 43 years. He titled himself, Sultân al-Barr, Sultân al-Bahr, 'Sultan of the Land, Sultan of the Sea'. He also founded city which is called Mahemdabad, sometimes also spelt as 'Memdavad' (It is situated on the main railway-line between Ahmedabad and Mumbai).

Great Britain, Charles II. Milled Gold Guinea - dated 1679.

Stock code: CM000957
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles II (1660 - 1685)
Denomination/metal: Gold Guinea
Date/mint mark: 1679
Type Fourth Bust
Ref. no: MCE 106; S 3344

Obv. Laureate bust right, 'CAROLVS II SEI GRATIA'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms in cruciform, 'C' cypher in centre, sceptres in angles, 'MAG BRI FR ET HIB REG'.
25mm, 8.24g. AEF - About Extremely Fine, strong bust, rev. a little weak.

In 1663 the ancient process of striking coins was given up for good and the Royal mint became totally mechanised under direction of the Roettier brothers whom Charles had brought back with him from the Continent on the Restitution of the Monarchy in 1660. This guinea is one of the new style milled coins and although there is a little weakness in the centre of the reverse, the portrait of Charles is particularly strong. It is thus attractive and therefore desirable.

Princely State of Hyderabad, Afzal ad-Daula gold Mohur dated regnal year 18 1273h (1857), mint of Hyderabad.

Stock code: CM001042
Country: India, Princely State of Hyderabad
King (reign): Afzal ad-Daula, 1857 – 1869
Denomination/metal: Gold Mohur
Date/mint mark: Regnal year 18 (of previous monarch), 1273h (1857).
Type Hyderabad Mint
Ref. no: KM C96.

Obv. Persian script - Rulers's titles and date, However in the previous monarch's name 'Bahadur Shah II'. Rev. Persian script - mint epithet, regnal year – but of previous monarch.
21mm, 11.16g. EF - Extremely Fine

Good condition and interesting as although struck in the first year of Afzal ad-Daula's reign, this coin continuES the name of the previous monarch with his regnal year ! Afzal ad-Daula's realm was divided into five 'subahs' and sixteen districts; each subah was headed by a Subedar and each district by a Taluqdar. Reforms during his reign, by his Prime Minister Salar Jung, included the establishment of a governmental central treasury in 1855. He also reformed the Hyderabad revenue and judicial systems, instituted a postal service and constructed the first rail and telegraph networks. In 1861 he was awarded the Star of India.

Mughal Empire, Ahmad Shah Bahadur gold Mohur dated regnal 116?h (1750s), mint of Delhi.

Stock code: CM001039
Country: India, Mughal Empire
King (reign): Alamgir II, 1754 – 1759
Denomination/metal: Gold Mohur
Date/mint mark: No regnal year and incomplete date (1750s).
Type Dar al-Khilifat, Shahjahanabad Mint (Delhi).
Ref. no: KM 467.10.

Obv. Persian script – Rulers's titles and incomplete date. Rev. Persian script - mint epithet, no regnal year.
21mm, 10.86g. EF - Extremely Fine, well struck.

Very good condition, well struck, large flan but with incomplete date – very attractive piece of this only six year emperor. Ahmed Shah Bahadur inherited a much weakened Mughal state. When Ahmed Shah Bahadur came to power the rule of the Mughal Empire was collapsing, furthermore his administrative weaknesses eventually led to the rise of his Vizier. He was emperor in title for six years, but left all affairs to state to rivalling factions. He was deposed by the Vizier Imad-ul-Mulk and later had his eyes gouged out along with his mother. After his overthrow, he was imprisoned at the Salimgarh Fort where he stayed for the rest of his life, finally dying in 1775 at the age of 50 during the reign of Emperor Shah Alam II. One of his sons, Bidar Bakhsh reigned briefly in 1788.

Mughal Empire, Aurangzeb gold Mohur dated regnal year 13, 1080h (1671), mint of Aurangabad.

Stock code: CM001035
Country: India, Mughal Empire
King (reign): Aurangzeb, 1658 – 1707
Denomination/metal: Gold Mohur
Date/mint mark: Regnal year 13 – 1080h (1671).
Type Aurangabad Mint
Ref. no: KM 315.10.

Obv. Persian script - Rulers's titles and date. Rev. Persian script - mint name at top, regnal year .
20mm, 10.98g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine, well struck with crisp definition.

Superb condition coin with crisply clear ruler's name and mint epithet. Outstanding ! Aurangzeb’s reign falls into two almost equal parts. In the first, which lasted until about 1680, he was a capable Muslim monarch of a mixed Hindu-Muslim empire and as such was generally disliked for his ruthlessness but feared and respected for his vigour and skill. During this period he was much occupied with safeguarding the north-west from Persians and Central Asian Turks and less so with the Maratha chief Shivaji, who twice plundered the great port of Surat (1664, 1670). Aurangzeb applied his great-grandfather Akbar’s recipe for conquest: defeat one’s enemies, reconcile them, and place them in imperial service. Thus, Shivaji was defeated, called to Agra for reconciliation (1666), and given an imperial rank. The plan broke down, however; Shivaji fled to the Deccan and died, in 1680, as the ruler of an independent Maratha kingdom. After about 1680, Aurangzeb’s reign underwent a change of both attitude and policy. The pious ruler of an Islamic state replaced the seasoned statesman of a mixed kingdom; Hindus became subordinates, not colleagues, and the Marathas, like the southern Muslim kingdoms, were marked for annexation rather than containment. The first overt sign of change was the re-imposition of the jizya, or poll tax, on non-Muslims in 1679 (a tax that had been abolished by Akbar). This in turn was followed by a Rajput revolt in 1680–81, supported by Aurangzeb’s third son, Akbar. Hindus still served the empire, but no longer with enthusiasm. The Deccan kingdoms of Bijapur and Golconda were conquered in 1686–87, but the insecurity that followed precipitated a long-incipient economic crisis, which in turn was deepened by warfare with the Marathas. Shivaji’s son Sambhaji was captured and executed in 1689 and his kingdom broken up. The Marathas, however, then adopted guerrilla tactics, spreading all over southern India amid a sympathetic population. The rest of Aurangzeb’s life was spent in laborious and fruitless sieges of forts in the Maratha hill country.

Isle of Man, Silver Crown of 1811 - issued by the Douglas Bank. Excessively rare!

Stock code: CM000955
Country: Isle of Man
King (reign): Dove & Co. Bank, Douglas
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown
Date/mint mark: 1811
Type Bank token
Ref. no: D 1; Prid 46; Q 68

Obv. View of Peel castle over the bay from the quayside. Rev. Name of issuer, denomination and date.
35mm, 15.42g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine, bright with brilliant proof-like surfaces.

Excessively rare piece – only known from three or four specimens (one which belonged to Sir George Chetwynd which was auctioned in 1872 by Christies which Davis valued in 1904 as “no exaggeration thirty guineas” !). Probably struck for the partners of the bank when the copper token series was minted in 1811 – possibly as a prospective pattern for further bank issue. The bank was founded on the 27th. November 1811 and was initially situated in Fort Street in Douglas and then for the rest of its existence in Duke street. The partners were William Scarlett Littler, the Rev Robert Littler and James Dove. Some £20 worth of copper and silver tokens were prepared for use but after only three or four weeks some difference regarding policy arose between the partners resulting in James Dove suing Robert Littler who was arrested while trying to leave the island. This arrest was waived on the 3rd. of January 1812 but the banking business ceased to operate after only just over a month's operation!

Gt. Britain, Anne silver Crown 1713, 'Roses & Plumes'.

Stock code: CM001117
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Anne (1702 - 1714)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown
Date/mint mark: 1713, 'DVODECIMO'.
Type Third Bust, Roses & Plumes
Ref. no: ESC 109; S 3603.

Obv. Draped bust left with hair up, 'ANNA DEI GRATIA'. Rev. Crowned arms of England, Scotland, France and Ireland in cruciform, roses and plumes in angles, 'MAG BRI FR ET HIB REG'.
29.91g. EF - Extremely Fine, good iridescence to toning, just slight weakness on one rose on rev. which corresponds with her shoulder on obv. which took all the metal in the strike

Handsome coin with beautiful even grey toning, just a little weak on the reverse where all the silver has gone into Anne's shoulder rather than the rose on this side. The roses and plumes on the reverse signify that the metal of which these coins were made came from the silver mines in the West of England (rose) and the those in Wales (plumes).