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Italy, Sicily - 1285 AD Pierreale - (GEF) Hammered, Gold

Stock code: CM000352X
Country: Italy, Sicily
King (reign): Peter of Aragon & Constance of Hohenstaufen (1282 - 1285)
Denomination/metal: Gold Pierreale
Date/mint mark: Messina/Cross
Type: Hammered
Ref. no: Spahr 7; Biaggi 1302; F 654.

Obv. Crowned eagle facing right, two circles of legend Rev. Arms of Aragon, two circleas of legend
24mm, 4.4g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine, well struck and well centred. Carefully and neatly struck.

Superb condition and very rare medieval gold coin, certainly ranking as one of the best known. Peter III of Aragon lived from 1239 until 1285 and, with Roger II and Frederick II, is considered one of the greatest Sicilian sovereigns of the Middle Ages. Peter became King Peter I of Sicily in 1282 as the liberating force behind the uprising and revolution known as the Sicilian Vespers. As an esquire and knight in his father's service, Peter fought against the Moors. He later succeeded to about half his father's realm, with the other half inherited by James, his younger brother. In 1262, he married Constance, daughter (and heiress) of Manfred of Sicily. The roles of wives are often overlooked in the annals of history, but Queen Constance was no mere footnote to great events. She joined Peter in Sicily in April 1283, meeting him at Messina with the couple's younger sons, James and Frederick, their daughter Violanta, and it is at this point that this heavy gold coin was struck. In fact, Constance was Peter's "regent" in Sicily in name and in a very real sense during his absence.

England - Charles I, Gold Triple Unite, minted Oxford during the Civil War, 1642

Stock code: CM000481X
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Gold Pounds, Three (Triple Unite)
Date/mint mark: 1642
Type Oxford Mint, 'Declaration'
Ref. no: Schneider 286; N 2381; S 2724

Obv. Half length tall figure of Charles to left, wearing crown and full armour holding a sword and an olive branch. Plumes behind, 'CAROLVS DG MAG BRIT FRAN ET HI REX'. Rev. Declaration in a three line scroll, 'RELIG PROT / LEG ANG / LIBER PAR' (Protestant Religion, Laws of England, Liberty of Parliament), three plumes above with mark of value, date below; around 'EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI' (Let God arise and let the enemy be scattered).
46mm, 27g. GVF - Good Very Fine, strongly struck

TheTripleUnite, valued atsixty shillings, 60/-or three pounds, was the highestEnglishdenomination to be produced. It was struck at the Oxford Mint set up during the first English Civil War of 1642-6 and issued between January and March of 1642 at the hurriedly set up mint at New Inn Hall in Oxford. This huge coin was issued, at least in part, for use as gifts to those whom the King wished to 'cement' to his side in the Civil War. Thus he obverse design for the coin features an armoured bust of Charles I, with broadsword raised, and yet in visual dichotomy he bears an olive branch clutched over his heart. Charles was visually appealing to either nature of the benefactor he was seeking to entice. The bust on this coin is very hawkish which is the earliest type, later he had it changed to a more benevolent softer style. On the reverse he put his famous declaration – uttered in 1642 when he swore to to uphold the Protestant Religion, the laws of England and the freedom of Parliament. Very rare and spectacular coin!

Great Britain - 1739 AD Guineas, Two - (AEF) Milled, Gold

Stock code: CM000323X
Country: Great Britain
King (reign): George II (1723 - 1760)
Denomination/metal: Gold Guineas, Two
Type: Milled Intermediate, laureate head
Ref. no: Schneider 576; S 3668

Obv. Laureate, draped bust left. Rev. Crowned, garnished Royal Arms – Great Britain, France, Ireland and Hanover.
32mm, 16.71g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine, reverse better. Lustre in protected areas of the field, clean coin

Handsome large gold coin of George II, little wear making it a pleasing and desirable coin. George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain and was born and brought up in Northern Germany. As king from 1727, George exercised little control over British domestic policy, which was largely controlled by Great Britain's parliament. As elector, he spent 12 summers in Hanover, where he had more direct control over government policy. He had a difficult relationship with his eldest son, Frederick , who supported the parliamentary opposition. During the War of the Austrian Succession, George participated at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743, and thus became the last British monarch to lead an army into battle. In 1745, supporters of the Stuart and Catholic claimant to the British throne failed to depose George in the last of the Jacobite rebellions. Frederick died unexpectedly in 1751, leaving George's grandson, George III , as heir apparent and ultimately king.

Bank of England, ONE MILLION POUND banknote 1948 - One of only two 'million pound' notes in existence!

Stock code: B000001X
Country: Great Britain
King (reign): George VI - (1936 - 1952)
Denomination/metal: Banknote Pounds, One Million
Date/mint mark: Bank of England

0mm, 0g. VF - Small hole cancellation through signature. Light creases and some handling otherwise good very fine to about extremely fine and extremely rare.

One Million Pounds, 30 August 1948, D 000007, on Bank of England watermarked paper, PAYABLE ON DEMAND, signature of E.E. Bridges, Secretary to the Treasury, bottom right, stamped ‘CANCELLED, 6 OCT. 1948, BANK OF ENGLAND’. Monies received through the Marshall Aid plan after World War II, were subject to strict accountability. The Treasury had to borrow from the Bank of England on a short term basis and to help with the book keeping requested the printing of high value notes. The total order sent to The Bank of England printing works was for Three Hundred Million Pounds in varying denominations, starting from Twenty Five Thousand Pounds. It is believed that the entire issue was subsequently destroyed with the exception of numbers Seven and Eight for One Million Pounds which were presented to the British and American Treasury Secretaries respectively.

Turkey, Republic large gold 'Monnaie de Luxe 500 Kurush 1927.

Stock code: CM001149
Country: Turkey
King (reign): Republic
Denomination/metal: Gold Kurush, 500
Date/mint mark: 1927
Type Monnaie de Luxe Series
Ref. no: KM 848; F 84

Obv. Radiant star and crescent above inscription within laurel and barley wreath Rev. Inscription and date within a floral wreath wreath
50mm, 35.03g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine.

Carrying on the Royal Ottoman tradition of issuing these large gold coins, the new Turkish Republic issued a 'Monnaie de Luxe' 500 kurush – very small mintage of 2,242 pieces only. It bears the new symbols of the republic a star and crescent but at the same time recalls the elaborate calligraphy of the Sultans but is now dated AD. Made in coin denomination weights they were intended for presentation purposes or jewellery and thus they are usually found mounted. This piece is not and consequently is a rare and desirable piece.

England, Charles I gold Unite (20/-) issued 134 – 1635.

Stock code: CM001152
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, Twenty (Unite)
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Bell' 1634 – 35.
Type Tower Mint, Group D, Bust 5.
Ref. no: N 2153; S 2692.

Obv. Crowned, draped bust left, denomination 'XX' to right, CAROLVS D' G' MA' BR' FR' ET HI' REX'. Rev. Crowned, garnished almost round Royal Arms dividing crowned 'CR', 'FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA' (Through concord kingdoms flourish).
32mm, 9.05g. VF - Very Fine, well struck though weakness in one part of legend.

Superb and traditional lace collared portrait of Charles, apart from one small area all legends strongly and clearly struck – very attractive example and rare thus. Interesting to note that the fashion of ruffs had now died out and contrary to his earlier issues we see Charles wearing a lace collar - with which we normally associate the 'Cavaliers'.

Moors of Spain (Murabitun), 'Ali ibn Yusuf gold dinar minted Algeciras, 507h (AD 1110 -11).

Stock code: CM001144
Country: Islamic, MURABITUN (Almoravid)
King (reign): 'Ali ibn Yusef, 1106 – 1143
Denomination/metal: Gold Dinar
Date/mint mark: 507h (AD 1110 /11).
Type Algeciras Mint

Obv. Kufic inscription. At the centre, the text consists of five lines: 'La illah ila Allah / Muhammad rassoul Allah / amir al-muslimine Ali bin / Yusuf walie ahdih / al-amir Tashufin' (Of the divine there is only God, Muhammad is the Messenger of God. The prince of the Muslims, Ali ibn Yusuf, who is the successor of the prince Tashufin). Rev. Kufic inscriptions - At the centre, the text consists of four lines: 'Al-imam / abdu / allah / amir al-Muminin' (The Imam Abdullah, prince of the believers). Around, date and mint.
25mm, 4.06g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine, well struck with some original lustre.

A superb condition Gold Dinar issued by the Moors of Spain under 'Ali ibn Yusuf minted in Algeciras on the south coast, dated 507h (1110-11 AD). Rare and in this condition particularly so – an iconic coin of the Moors of Spain. The Almoravids were a Berber confederation and Ali ibn Yusuf succeeded his father upon his death in 1106 as the 5th. Almoravid (or Murabitun dynasty) king and as such was ruler in North Africa and Al-Andalus in Spain and towards the middle of his reign all of Muslim Spain apart from Valencia He was an ethnic Berber and reigned 1106–1142 A.D and would have battled Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar . . . known as El Cid "Campeador" of the state of Valencia The Moors under 'Ali ibn Yusuf invaded the province of Toledo and carried terror to the gates of the capital of Christian Spain - they also invaded Portugal and even got as far north as to lay siege to Barcelona. It was at this point in 1111 (when this coin was issued) that the Christian leader Alfonso I of Aragon engaged them and although the outcome of this battle was actually indecisive it did have the effect of causing the Moors to abandon Catalonia and retreat south. Subsequently Alfonso went into the offensive against Ali ibn Yusuf's invaders and the Moors lost almost all the territory south of the Ebro. Saragossa was then lost to them in 1118 after a four years' series of operations and Alfonso made it his capital. In 1125 the Christians invaded Andalusia at the invitation of the Mozarabes, or Christian inhabitants of that country; and although Ali ibn Yusuf managed to hold onto Granada, the tide had turned and the Christians repossessed most of Iberian peninsular.

Great Britain, George IV. Silver Proof Crown, struck in 1826.

Stock code: CM001297
Country: England, Hanoverian
King (reign): George IV (1820 - 1830)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown
Date/mint mark: 1826

Ref. no: L&S 28; ESC.257; Davies 151; S.3806

Obv. Bare head left, date below, legend surrounding. Rev. Crowned quartered shield of arms, with an escutcheon of the Arms of Hanover, motto on banner below, legend surrounding, edge inscribed in raised letters and dated SEPTIMO.
GEF - Attractively toned, a number of hairlines and small nicks on obverse, one rim nick, reverse problem free, otherwise extremely fine / good extremely fine and rare.

England, James I gold Unite (20 shillings) issued 1604 – 1605.

Stock code: CM001061
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): James VI (1567 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, Twenty (Unite)
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Lis' – Nov. 1604 – Jun. 1605.
Type Second Issue.

Obv. Crowned king in full armour right holding orb and sceptre, IACOBVS DG MAG BRIT FRANC ET HIB REX'. Rev. Crowned and garnished Royal Arms dividing 'IR', FACIAM EOS IN GENTEM VNAM'. (I will make them into one nation).
37mm, 9.84g. AVF - About Very Fine, well struck but with a little wear.

Although this coin has seen a little wear, because it was strongly stuck all the main features are still visible and it is still a very attractive piece of this first Stuart monarch of England. Called a 'Unite' because of James's wish to 'unite' the nations of England and Scotland – which sentiment he chose to be the reverse legend of his twenty Shillings piece. This is a concept that is particularly relevant today !

England, Edward IV gold Ryal (10 shillings), light coinage, London mint, 1464 – 1470.

Stock code: CM001060
Country: England, House of York
King (reign): Edward IV (1461 - 1470)
Denomination/metal: Gold Ryal
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Crown' on rev. only – 1465 – 70.
Type Second or 'Light coinage'.
Ref. no: Schneider 363v; N 1549 S 1950.

Obv. Crowned king in armour holding sword and Royal Arms within an antique ship with a rose in the middle and banner containing an 'E' on the stern, 'EDWARD DI GRA REX ANGL S FRANC DNS IB'. Rev. Cross 'fleurdelise' with crowned leopards in angles, rose on star in centre, all within tressure of eight arches, lis in outer angles, no mm; 'IHC AVT' TRANSIENS PER MEDIVM ILLORVM IBAT', (But Jesus, passing in the midst of them, went his way).
34mm, 7.59g. GVF - Good Extremely Fine, well and centrally struck on a small flan.

Attractive piece with details sharp and clear – especially king's facial features, details of the boat and intricate cross on the other side. Issued in the middle of the wars of the Roses, a very turbulent time of civil war in England. Edward was an extremely capable and daring military commander and destroyed the House of Lancaster in a series of spectacular military victories - he was never defeated on the field of battle. Despite his occasional (if serious) political setbacks — usually at the hands of his great Machiavellian rival, Louis XI of France ! Edward was a popular and very able king. While he lacked foresight and was at times cursed by bad judgement, he possessed an uncanny understanding of his most useful subjects, and the vast majority of those who served him remained unwaveringly loyal until his death.

Roman Silver Denarius of Domitian, struck as Caesar AD 81

Stock code: CM001276
Country: Roman
King (reign): Domitian, AD 81-96
Denomination/metal: Silver Denarius
Date/mint mark: AD 81
Type struck as Caesar
Ref. no: RIC 59; RCV 2746 var.

Obv. IMP CAES DIVI VESP F DOMITIAN AV [G P M], laureate head facing right. Rev. TR P COS VII DES VIII P P, Minerva advancing right, brandishing a spear and holding a shield.
2.9g. AEF - Beautiful iridescent cabinet tone, about extremely fine and rare.

England, Charles I silver Crown, struck during Civil War at Truro 1642 – 1643.

Stock code: CM001063
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Rose' – 1642-43.
Type Truro Mint
Ref. no: S 3045.

Obv. King crowned and armoured on horse left, sash flying out, 'CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT FRA ET HI REX'. Rev. Round, garnished Royal Arms, CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO' (I reign under the auspice of Christ).
42mm, 28.82g. VF - Very Fine, upper bust a little weakly struck

These coins are normally quickly and badly struck but this example exhibits very little wear, a full legend with a very well struck reverse. However the upper bust of Charles is a little weak but the detail in the horse is very good. This coin is a better specimen than the plate coin in 'Coins of England'. When the Civil War began in 1642, the Tower mint fell into the hands of Parliament and Charles was forced to open a mints in Royalist held western England at Shrewsbury, Bristol and Oxford Truro and finally Exeter. (1642 -46). In 1643 the king was already minting coins in Truro and on 4 September, after a siege, Exeter surrendered to Prince Maurice and the city remained in Royalist hands till 9 April 1646. On 3 January 1644 Sir Richard Vyvyan received a Royal Commission to set up a mint in Exeter;

Great Britain, George III. 'Pattern' Five Guineas by R. Yeo, struck in 1777 - Unique!

Stock code: CM001131
King (reign): George III (1760 - 1820)
Date/mint mark: 1777
Type Pattern 'en medaille', Plain Edge.
Ref. no: cf.W&R.78; cf.L&S.3; cf.S 3723A.

Obv. Laureate bust right with hair extending below bust, 'GEORGIVS III DEI GRATIA'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms in an ornate ogee shield, 'M B F ET H REX F D B ET L D S R I AT ET E', (King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Duke of Brunswick and Luneburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire and Elector).
38mm, 2.105g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine attractively patinated (encapsulated by CGS).

Unique Piece thus the ultimate rarity. Known in gold from a couple of specimens but not in any other metal and thought to be of the hand of Richard Yeo (died 1779). This probably represents a first striking in the production of the pattern coin – a soft whitemetal flan would have been used so as not to harm the dies in any way and thus an initial idea of the realistic appearance coin could be gained. At the beginning of George III's reign the die-engravers Pingo and Yeo, inspired by Tanner, were competing for the commission to design Britain's gold coinage. As it turned out only guineas were issued – probably due to the poor state of the machinery at the Royal Mint. Thus to own a Five Guinea piece of George III all that can be had is a handful of extremely rare patterns such as this.

England, Edward I. Silver Groat 1279 - c1281. 'One of the finest known'.

Stock code: CM001125
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Cross potent',
Type New Coinage, Variery 'F'.
Ref. no: SCBI 39 var G; Allen F6/R37; Fox 2; n 1006; S 1379h

Obv. Crowned bust in quatrefoil of two lines, rosets in angles, triple pellet stops, 'EDWARDVS : DI : GRA : REX : ANGL'. Rev. Long Cross, triple pellets in angles, inner and outer legend, 'DNS HIBN'E DVX AQVT', (Lord of Ireland, duke of Aquitaine'), 'CIVI LONDONIA' (city of London).
29mm, 5.45g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck and attractively patinated.

Outstanding piece, Iconic coin and one of the finest known – certainly the best on the market in the last ten years. In 1279 Edward introduced this large silver fourpence for the first time in England as part of his 'New Coinage'. For some reason it was not a success and it's minting appears to have been abandoned only a few years later in around 1281. Two specimens were found in the Dover Hoard put down in 1295 and from then on there is no hoard evidence which suggests that they did not even circulate by the end of the 1290s. The majority exist today from single finds – but most of these are gilded and/or have soldered mounts on the back which suggests that their primary use, ultimately seems to have been jewellery! Consequently, as well as being extremely rare they normally are found mounted which makes the perfect example even more difficult to find! This is not only a very rare coin but an outstanding example of the first groat issued in England, a denomination which would only be resumed by Edward's grandson some sixty years later in 1351!

Italy, Vittorio Emanuele II large gold 100 lira piece 1864, Torino. Excesively rare – only 579 struck!

Stock code: CM001018
Country: Italy
King (reign): Vittorio Emanuele II, 1861 – 1878
Denomination/metal: Gold Lira, 100
Date/mint mark: 1864
Type Torino Mint issue
Ref. no: Mont 126; Pag 451; F 8.

Obv. Bare head left, VITTORIO EMANUELE II'. Rev. Crowned arms in laurel wreath, 'REGNO D'ITALIA'.
34mm, 32.22g. EF - Extremely Fine, bright (old cleaning) with normal bag marks.

The brightness of this coin indicates it may have been lightly cleaned in antiquity. However, it is excessively rare with a mintage of only 579 pieces !!! It is large and iconic – the largest coin issued by Vittorio Emanuele II and consequently, much sort after. Even taking into account its brightness it is still very desirable and very rarely comes onto the market. It is one of the key coins of the Italian milled series – a very popular area.

England, Henry V. Gold Noble struck at London between 1413 & 1422.

Stock code: CM001180
Country: England
King (reign): Henry V
Denomination/metal: Gold Noble
Date/mint mark: mm. pierced cross, 1413 - 1422
Type Class 'E'
Ref. no: N 1373; S 1744.

Obv. King in ship holding shield of Royal Arms and sword, annulet by sword arm, trefoil by shield, trefoil stops, 'HENRIC' DI GRA' REX ANGL' Z FRANC' DNS hYB'. Rev. Cross fleuree with 'h' in centre and crowned lions 'passant guardant' in angles, pellet under last spandrel, mullet after IhC, 'Ih'C AVT TRANSIENS PER MEDIV' ILLORV' IBAT' (But Jesus, passing through the midst of them, went on His way).
32mm, 6.86g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck but on a small flan. Small flaw running just through the legend into prow of ship (three o' clock on obv.).

Although on a slightly small flan this coin is in very good condition indeed – strongly struck with all details clear – especially the king's face and arms. The small flaw that three o' clock is hardly discernible and doesn't really detract that much form the 'eye appeal' of the piece. The nobles of Henry V are very similar to those of the previous reign – other than the development of privy marks which abound on this coin (annulets, pellet and trefoil).

England, Henry VII. Gold Angel (6s/8d.), struck 1505 to 1509.

Stock code: CM001183
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Henry VII (1485 - 1509)
Denomination/metal: Gold Angel
Date/mint mark: mm. pheon, 1505 - 1509
Type Type 5
Ref. no: Schneider 542; n 1698; S 2187.

Obv. The angel St. Michael spearing fallen dragon like devil, 'HENRIC DI GRA REX ANGL Z FR'. Rev. Ancient ship with central mast a cross upon which is the Royal Arms, 'h' and rose either side. 'PER CRVCE TVA SALVA NOS XPE RED', (By the cross save us, Oh Christ our Redeemer).
28mm, 5.03g. AVF - About Very Fine, well struck.

Some wear but all the main features visible – pretty little coin. The angel had been issued for nearly a hundred years but towards the turn of the century the design of St. Michael was changed from a fairly 'elfish' feathered figure to a winged knight in renaissance armour as seen here. The Lancastrian Henry (VII) Tudor married Yorkist Edward IV's daughter thereby bringing together the red and white roses to form the 'Tudor Rose' and thus ending the 'Wars of the Roses' which had devastated England for 50 years.

England, Charles I. 'Second Issue' Silver milled sixpence issued 1638 and 1639.

Stock code: CM001177
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny, Six (Sixpence)
Date/mint mark: mm. 'Anchor', 1638 - 1639
Type Briot's Second Milled Issue
Ref. no: S 2860.

Obv. Crowned bust left, denomination (VI) behind, 'CAROLVS DG MAG BRIT FR ET HIB REX'. Rev. Royal Arms on cross recerclee,'CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO', (I reign under the auspice of Christ).
25mm, 2.93g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine, light correction marks on obv., very attractive iridescent toning to lustre.

Superb example of this Second Milled sixpence with fantastic iridescent lustre of blues and pinks. Charles employed the Frenchman Nicholas Briot who issued his machine made coins (ie milled rather than hammered) as an experiment in 1631 and 1632 and then again, after his return from Scotland, in 1638 to 1639 when this coin was made. This example exhibits virtually no wear although there are the normal correction marks - but otherwise has a fantastic portrait of the king. Although he produced superior coins that were well and precision struck, Briot and his milling machines were unpopular at the Tower of London. However in 1633 Charles had made Briot 'Chief Engraver' and a few years later Briot again attempted mechanisation at the Mint. Unfortunately, this second attempt was shelved after only a few months by the Civil War and thus in this piece we have not only a very rare and superiorly produced coin but also an important 'landmark' in the issue of milled British coins which would not be fully instituted at the Mint for a further thirty years.

England, William I 'The Conqueror'. Silver Penny, 1068 – 1070. Struck by Ealgar at London.

Stock code: CM001211
Country: England
King (reign): William I - (1066 - 1087)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Date/mint mark: 1068 – c1070
Type Bonnet Type, London mint.
Ref. no: Allen BNJ 2012 p.76; BMC 116; N 842; S 1251.

Obv. Crowned facing head with two fillets at each side, 'PILLEMVS REX AI'. Rev. Cross voided with annulet in centre, pellet between two crescents at end of each limb, pile in each angle, 'EALEAR ON LVND' (Ealgar at London).
20mm, 1.27g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine, well struck and very sharp portrait although reverse a little weak, attractively patinated.

Superb portrait of William and the first of a series that parts from the Saxon style of the profile portrait to the frontal portait, a couple of years or so after the battle of Hastings Initially William used Saxon moneyers and his coins looked very much like those of Harold – but this new series set a 'Norman' style. William's reign has caused historical controversy since before his death. William of Poitiers wrote glowingly of William's reign and its benefits, but the obituary notice for William in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle condemns William in harsh terms. In the years since the Conquest, politicians and other leaders have used William and the events of his reign to illustrate political events throughout English history. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England, Archbishop Matthew Parker saw the Conquest as having corrupted a purer English Church, which Parker attempted to restore. During the 17th and 18th centuries some historians and lawyers saw William's reign as imposing a "Norman yoke" on the native Anglo-Saxons, an argument that continued during the 19th century with further elaborations along nationalistic lines. These various controversies have led to William being seen by some historians either as one of the creators of England's greatness or as inflicting one of the greatest defeats in English history. Others have viewed William as an enemy of the English constitution, or alternatively as its creator!

England, Charles I gold Unite -'Negro's Head' mintmark -1626 – 1627.

Stock code: CM001242
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, Twenty (Unite)
Date/mint mark: mm. negro's Head; 1626 – 1627
Type Tower mint, Group B, Class 1a.
Ref. no: JGB 32/33; N 2148; S 2687.

Obv. Crowned, draped bust left, denomination 'XX' behind, 'CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX'. Rev. Crowned, garnished square-topped shield, 'FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA', (Through concord kingdoms flourish).
33mm, 8.99g. GVF - Good very Fine, bold strike with very clear obv. Mintmark

This coin is well struck and although it exhibits some wear, all the main features are clear. It carries the 'Negro's Head' mintmark which is very scarce making the coin desirable and ultimately rare in this grade. It has a particularly interesting early portrait of Charles in a Tudor/Jacobean style ruff which was shortly to go out of fashion in favour of the lace collar with which we normally associate the 'Royalists'. Handsome piece.

Celtic Britain CORIELTAUVI, Vep Corf (retrograde) pale gold Stater AD 5 – 25.

Stock code: CM001196
Country: England, Celtic
King (reign): Vasu Deva II (288AD - 300AD)
Denomination/metal: Gold Stater
Date/mint mark: cAD 5 – 25
Type First Coinage.
Ref. no: BM 3296; vA 930; S -

Obv. Crude wreath design. Rev. Disjointed 'Celticised' horse, three pellets below horses tail, 'VEP' above, '(C)ORF' below.
20mm, 5.2g. GVF - Good Very Fine.

Very interesting example of this Corieltauvi stater – with the upper part of the legend 'VEP' being retrograde. A very rare variation! The meaning of Vep Corf is not really understood – CORF could perhaps be read as COR F, i.e. son (Filius) of Cor, or does COR refer to 'Corieltauvi'. Vep was probably a 'chief' of the Corieltauvi, a tribe based in the English East Midlands and Lincolnshire, around the time of the Roman conquest of Britain. Who ever Vep was he probably produced coins over a considerable period as the series has many variations and issued coins from around AD 5 – 25.

England, Edward VI silver Halfcrown, dated 1652.

Stock code: CM001191
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Edward VI (1547 - 1553)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown, Half
Date/mint mark: 1652
Type Fine silver issue.
Ref. no: N 1934; S 2479

Obv. Crowned and fully armoured king, holding sword in right hand on fully caparisoned horse walking right, EDWARD VI D'G'AGL' FRA' Z HIBER' REX'. Rev. Royal Arms on cross fourchee, POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE' MEVM', (I have made god my helper).
36mm, 15.4g. GVF - Good Very Fine well struck.

Some superficial wear, but well struck so all main features of king and horse are clearly discernible. This coin is particularly interesting in that it claims a first - it is the first time an English silver coin bears the date in Arabic numerals! The coin is rare and as a type was only issued for three years – 1551, 52 and 53.

Anglo-Saxon England Mercia, Coenwulf. Silver Penny c805 – 810, struck at Canterbury by the moneyer Duda.

Stock code: CM001205
Country: England, Anglo-Saxon
King (reign): Coenwulf (796 - 821)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Date/mint mark: c805 – 810
Type Portrait Type, Group II.
Ref. no: N 350; S 915.

Obv. Diademed bust right, '+ COENVVVLF REX'. Rev. Cross pommee over quatrefoil with pellet in each angle, within ring, '+ DVDA MONETA', (money of Duda).
19mm, 1.29g. VF - Very Fine or better, on a neat flan and handsomely toned.

Extremely rare and well struck coin in outstanding condition resulting in a fantastic contemporary portrait of this king of Mercia. Coenwulf (796 – 821) was a descendant of a brother of King Penda, who had ruled Mercia in the middle of the 7th century. He succeeded Ecgfrith, the son of Offa; Ecgfrith only reigned for five months, with Coenwulf coming to the throne in the same year that Offa died. In the early years of Coenwulf's reign he had to deal with a revolt in Kent, which had been under Offa's control. Eadberht Præn returned from exile in Francia to claim the Kentish throne and Coenwulf was forced to wait for papal support before he could intervene. When Pope Leo agreed to anathematize Eadberht, Coenwulf invaded and retook the kingdom; Eadberht was taken prisoner, and was blinded and had his hands cut off. Thus it is in the later part of his reign that coins were struck in Canterbury in his name Coenwulf also appears to have lost control of the kingdom of East Anglia during the early part of his reign, as an independent coinage appears under King Eadwald. Coenwulf's coinage reappears in 805 indicating that the kingdom was again under Mercian control.

Great Britain, George III. Silver Five Shillings Bank token, 1804 struck over a Spanish 'Piece-of-Eight'.

Stock code: CM001240
Country: England, Hanoverian
King (reign): George III (1760 - 1820)
Denomination/metal: Silver Bank Token
Date/mint mark: 1804
Type Bank of England Dollar issue.
Ref. no: S 3768

Obv. Laureate, draped bust left, 'GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX'. Rev. Britannia seated left holding shield and olive branch, 'BANK OF ENGLAND' and within a mural crowned band 'FIVE SHILLINGS, DOLLAR'.
41mm, 26.69g. UC - Uncirculated, attractive toned lustre

Bank of England dollars were five shilling coins issued by the Bank of England struck over Spanish American Pieces of Eight. The Royal Mint was not striking enough silver coins which resulted in the circulation of Pieces of Eight Reales, from Spanish America, which were countermarked with a 'hallmark' to validate them. This was an unsatisfactory process so the Bank of England commissioned Matthew Boulton at his Soho Mint in Birmingham to produce a die that could re-strike the Pieces of Eight into recognisable British coins. This was done using Kuchler's design (his initials on bust) and this 5/- bank token, also known as a 'dollar', was issued as there was a dire need for silver coin. No large sized silver was struck in George III's reign until 56 years into his reign – and these countermarked pieces of eight and over-struck Bank 'dollars' were all that there was ! One can just make out details of the Piece-of-Eight undertype by looking at the lower part of the obverse, below the bust, close to the edge.

England, Charles I. Gold Triple Unite, struck at Oxford 1642.

Stock code: CM001219
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Gold Unite, Triple
Date/mint mark: 1642
Type Declaration issue, Oxford Mint.
Ref. no: Beresford Jones dies III/S2; Schneider 286; Brooker 832; N 2381; S 2724.

Obv. Crowned taller half-length armoured figure left, holding sword midway in field and long olive branch in left hand not touching upper shoulder, no scarf, Oxford plume to right, 'CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT FRAN ET HI REX'. Rev. Declaration inscription in three lines on a wavy scroll, 'RELIG PROT / LEG ANG / LIBER PAR' (Protestant Religion, Laws of England, Freedom of Parliament), three Oxford Plumes and value 'III' above, date below. 'EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI' (Let God arise and His enemies be scattered).
45mm, 26.92g. GVF - Good very Fine, well struck with a crisp bust, light handling marks.

The Triple Unite, valued at sixty shillings, or three pounds, was the highest English hammered denomination to be produced. It was struck at the Oxford Mint set up during the first English Civil War of 1642-6 and issued between January and March of 1643 (although dated 1642 ie in the old calender) at the hurriedly set up mint at New Inn Hall in Oxford. This huge coin was issued, at least in part, for use as gifts to those whom the King wished to 'cement' to his side in the Civil War. Thus the obverse design for the coin features an armoured bust of Charles I, with broadsword raised, and yet in visual dichotomy he bears an olive branch over his heart. Charles was visually appealing to either nature of the benefactor he was seeking to entice. The first bust on these coins was very hawkish (as on this example) and next year he had it changed to a more benevolent and softer style. On the reverse he put his famous declaration – uttered at Wellington in September 1642 when he swore to to uphold the Protestant Religion, the laws of England and the freedom of Parliament. A very rare (about two hundred are thought top be in existence) and spectacular coin! In January 1642 the 'Long Parliament had seized power in London and Charles was forced to move north. He reached Nottingham by late August but then turned west to Oxford which he reached in October and set up Court and prepared for war. On the 26th of October the Civil War commenced with the battle of Edgehill and then followed the famous battles and sieges of Naseby, Newark and Oxford. Peace negotiations in Spring 1646 came to nought the war continued into a second phase when the Scots invaded in 1648. During this time it was the King's sole right and prerogative to strike coins and to support the 'Royal Cause' supporters' plate, flatware, jewellery and any precious metal was donated to the king to turn into coin to finance the Royalist effort. Coins were struck at Oxford after the mint was hurriedly set up by Thomas Bushell in January 1643 to pay for men, arms, rent, supplies etc. for the war effort but these large gold coins, the ultimate image of Royal Power, were primarily used to procure allegiance. They were never intended to be saved and most were melted down at the end of the war to be turned into current coin – when the concept of 'kingship' had changed forever. A few survived and this rare and magnificent coin, the largest British hammered gold coin, is truly emblematic of this troubled age, the last king of England to rule by divine right.

English Colonial America, Silver 'Pine tree' Sixpence. Dated 1652, struck for Massachusetts in the 1660s.

Stock code: CM001217
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles II (1660 - 1685)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny, Six (Sixpence)
Date/mint mark: (1652) generally issued in 1660s
Type Pellets at trunk variety
Ref. no: Noe 33; Breen 48; Whitman 670.

Obv. Pine tree within pellet ring, 'MASATHUSETS IN'. Rev. Date over denomination 'VI', 'NEW ENGLAND AN DOM 1652'.
19mm, 2.11g. GVF - Good Very Fine, dark toning, obverse struck a little off centre.

Superb example of this early and very rare American Colonial coin. Beautiful lustrous grey patination, well struck although the obv. Is a little off centre – particularly good example and difficult to better! As early as 1650, the colony of Massachusetts Bay was a commercial success. But an inadequate supply of money made trading difficult. England was not inclined to send gold and silver coins to the colonies, for she too were in short supply. Taking matters into their own hands, Boston authorities allowed two settlers, John Hull and his assistant Robert Sanderson, to set up a mint in the capital, Boston in 1652. The two were soon striking silver coinage - shillings, sixpences, and threepences. Nearly all of the new coins bore the same date: 1652. It is thought that the device, the pine tree, may symbolize one of the Bay Colony's prime exports, pine trees for ships' masts. Massachusetts coinage not only circulated within that colony, but was generally accepted throughout the Northeast of America, becoming a monetary standard in its own right. The majority of the coins were actually struck a few years after the date they bear (up to the 1670s) which poses the question,' why the 1652 date'? Some believe that it was intended to commemorate the founding of the Massachusetts mint, which did occur in 1652. Others believe the choice was a reflection of larger political events. Coinage was a prerogative of the King and in theory, these colonists had no right to strike their own coins, no matter how great their need. However, in 1652, there was no king - King Charles I had been beheaded three years previously, and England was a republic. The people in Massachusetts may have cleverly decided to put that date on their coinage so that they could deny any illegality if, as did happen, there were a re-establishment of the monarchy!

Roman Gold Aureus of Augustus, mint Lugdunum. Struck 15-13 BC.

Stock code: CM001115
Country: Roman
Denomination/metal: Gold Aureus
Date/mint mark: 15-13BC, 6h
Type Mint of Lugdunum
Ref. no: RIC 166a; BMC 450; Calico 212

Obv. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, bare head of Augustus facing right. Rev. IMP X (in exergue) bull butting right.
7.81g. EF - An excellent portrait of Augustus struck on a very broad flan, a few light marks, otherwise extremely fine, a very attractive example.

England, James II. Silver Halfcrown, 1686.

Stock code: CM001326
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): James II (1685 - 1688)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown, Half
Date/mint mark: 1686
Type First laureate type
Ref. no: ESC 494; S 3408

Obv. First laureate and draped bust left. Rev. Crowned cruciform shields, garter star at centre, date above, second 6 over 2 in date, edge inscribed in raised letters and dated SECVNDO.
32mm, AEF - Toned, light haymarking, reverse die flaw through Scottish shield and adjustment marks at date and on obverse drapery as per usually seen, otherwise nearly extremely fine.

Great Britain, Victoria. Silver Halfcrown 1840

Stock code: CM001328
Country: England, Hanoverian
King (reign): Victoria (1837 - 1901)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown, Half
Date/mint mark: 1840
Type Young head
Ref. no: ESC 673; S 3887

Obv. Young head left with two plain fillets in hair, ww incuse on truncation, date below. Rev. Crowned quartered shield of arms within wreath, edge milled.
31mm, GEF - Uneven tone, a few tiny obverse hairlines, otherwise an attractive good extremely fine, with reverse lustre.

England, George I. Silver Halfcrown, 1717.

Stock code: CM001329
Country: England, Hanoverian
King (reign): George I (1714 - 1727)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown, Half
Date/mint mark: 1717

Ref. no: ESC 589; S 3642

Obv. Laureate and draped bust right. Rev. Crowned cruciform shields, roses and plumes in angles, garter star at centre, date above, edge inscribed in raised letters and dated with standard edge error for this date TIRTIO.
33mm, EF - Old cabinet tone, a few light obverse marks and metal flaw at chin, light haymarking, otherwise practically extremely fine.

England, Charles II. Silver Halfcrown 1683.

Stock code: CM001331
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles II (1660 - 1685)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown, Half
Date/mint mark: 1683

Ref. no: ESC 490; S 3367

Obv. Fourth laureate and draped bust right. Rev. Crowned cruciform shields, interlinked Cs in angles, garter star at centre, edge inscribed in raised letters and dated TRICESIMO QVINTO.
33mm, EF - Lightly toned, softly struck in parts, otherwise a pleasing extremely fine, reverse better, a superb example.

England, Cnut. Silver Penny, quaterfoil type, Bedford mint.

Stock code: CM001332
Country: England, Medieval
King (reign): Cnut (1016 - 1035)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Type Quatrefoil type, Bedford Mint, Moneyer Leofwine.
Ref. no: BMC type VIII; N 781; S 1157

Obv. Crowned and draped bust left within quatrefoil, legend commences at lower left, +CNVT REX ANGLORVM. Rev. Long voided cross with pellet centre and tri-crescent terminals, over quatrefoil with pellet on each cusp, +LEOFPINE N BDE.
19mm, 1.23g. VF - Dark tone, a bold very fine and rare.

India, William IV. Gold Proof Restrike Mohur, 1835.

Stock code: CM001337
Country: India, British
King (reign): William IV (1830 - 1837)
Denomination/metal: Gold Mohur
Date/mint mark: 1835

Ref. no: Pr 17; KM 451 1
26mm, PROOF - Proof restrike

India, Victoria. Copper proof ¼-Anna, 1892. Calcutta mint.

Stock code: CM001339
Country: India, British
King (reign): Victoria (1837 - 1901)
Denomination/metal: Copper 1/4-Anna
Date/mint mark: 1892
Type Original proof
Ref. no: SW 6 520

Obv. VICTORIA EMPRESS25mm, UC - Lightly toned with mint red, uncirculated.

India, Madras Presidency. Silver ½-Pagoda, 1808.

Stock code: CM001341
Country: India, British (EIC)
King (reign): East India Company
Denomination/metal: Silver 1/2-Pagoda
Date/mint mark: 1808

Ref. no: Pr 172; KM 353

Obv. 1808, large letters, stop after HALF and PAGODA, three poles on the top of the gopuram pointing between the G and O, lines within the belt buckle. Rev. No dots between the legs of Vishnu, one dot above his top.
35mm, EF - Extremely fine.

Celtic Britain, Corieltauvi. Gold Stater, c.45-10 BC.

Stock code: CM001342
Country: England, Celtic
King (reign): Corieltauvi
Denomination/metal: Gold Stater
Date/mint mark: c.45-10 BC
Type Uninscribed Coinage, Kite Type (c. 45-10 B.C.)
Ref. no: VA 825-1; BMC 3181-3; S 392

Obv. Abstract head of Apollo right. Rev. Disjointed horse left, kite-shaped box containing four pellets above, three-armed spiral below.
16mm, 5.47g. EF - A little softly-struck on obverse, otherwise extremely fine.

British India, George V. Silver Proof Restrike Rupee, 1912B.

Stock code: CM001349
Country: India, British
King (reign): George V (1910 - 1936)
Denomination/metal: Silver Rupee
Date/mint mark: 1912B

Ref. no: SW 8.24
30mm, PROOF - Proof Restrike

Mughal Empire, Aurangzeb. Gold Mohur, Dar Shajahanabad, 1098h.

Stock code: CM001351
Country: India, Mughal Empire
King (reign): Aurangzeb, 1658 – 1707
Denomination/metal: Gold Mohur
Date/mint mark: 1098h
Type Dar al-Khilafat Shajahanabad
Ref. no: KM 315.42
20mm, GEF - Good extremely fine.

England, Edward the Confessor. Silver Penny, facing bust type. Oxford mint.

Stock code: CM001325
Country: England, Medieval
King (reign): Edward the Confessor (1042 - 1066)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Date/mint mark: 1062-1065
Type Facing bust type (1062-65), Oxford Mint, Moneyer Heregod.
Ref. no: Freeman 109; BMC type XIII; N 830; S 1183

Obv. Crowned and draped facing bust within linear circle, legend commences at top, +EADPARD REX ANG. Rev. Cross at centre, linear circle surrounding, +HEREGOD ON OXEN.
17mm, 1.09g. GVF - Toned, good very fine.

Roman Empire, Antoninus Pius. Gold Aureus, struck AD 148-149

Stock code: CM001321
Country: Roman
King (reign): Antonius Pius (138 - 161)
Denomination/metal: Gold Aureus
Date/mint mark: AD 148-149

Ref. no: RIC 177(f) var.; cf. BMC 651 note; Calicó 1505 (this coin); RCV 4003 var.

Obv. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XII, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust facing right. Rev. COS IIII, Aequitas standing left, holding scales and a cornucopiae.
19mm, 7.2g. EF - A beautiful example, retaining a great deal of lustre, well-struck and extremely fine.

England, James I. Gold Laurel of Twenty Shillings, third coinage.

Stock code: CM001320
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): James I (1603 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, Twenty (Laurel)
Date/mint mark: 1619-1625
Type Third coinage (1619-25)
Ref. no: Schneider II-83; N 2112; S 2638

Obv. Second smaller laureate and draped bust left, ss shaped ties to laurel wreath, value in field behind, beaded circle surrounding, initial mark spur rowel (1619-20) both sides, IACOBVS D: G: MAG: BRIT FRAN: ET HIB REX. outer beaded circle surrounding both sides. Rev. Crowned quartered shield of arms, upon long cross fleury, beaded circle surrounding, no reverse punctuation, FACIAM EOS IN GENTEM VNAM, initial mark at end of legend.
35mm, 9g. GVF - A few light striations on obverse, toned good very fine and scarce.

England, Elizabeth I. Gold Pound of Twenty Shilling, sixth issue.

Stock code: CM001318
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603)
Denomination/metal: Gold Pound, One (20 Shillings)
Date/mint mark: 1583-1600
Type Sixth issue (1583-1600)
Ref. no: Schneider 799/-; B&C F6; N 2008; S 2534

Obv. Ornate crowned bust left, beaded circle surrounding, initial mark woolpack (1594-6), annulet and comma stops on obverse, ELIZABETHo D’o G’o ANG’o FRA’o ETo HIBo REGINAo. Rev. Crowned quartered shield of arms, E to left, R to right, beaded circle surrounding, annulet stops on reverse, SCVTVMo FIDEIo PROTEGETo EAMo outer beaded circle surrounding both sides.
37mm, 11.11g. GVF - A little weak at reverse mint mark and corresponding part of obverse, a few other light marks, otherwise good very fine.

England, Aethelred II. Silver Penny, Last Small Cross type, Thetford mint.

Stock code: CM001315
Country: England, Medieval
King (reign): Aethelred II (978AD - 1016AD)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Type Last small cross type Penny (1009-17), BMC type Ic, Elfwine of Colchester Mint.
Ref. no: BMC type I; N 779; S 1154

Obv. Draped and diademed bust left, within linear circle, +edel-red rex n. Rev. Short cross at centre, four smaller crosses surrounding, all within linear circle, +elfpine on cole.
19mm, 1.48g. VF - Flan a little undulating, peck marked mainly on reverse, with a strong portrait, a pleasing very fine and very rare with the extra crosses, presumably a short-lived sub-issue in East Anglia.

Anglo-Saxon England, Normandy. Silver Penny of William I, PAXs type, Lincoln mint.

Stock code: CM001314
Country: England, Anglo-Saxon
King (reign): William I - (1066 - 1087)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Type PAXS type (1083?-86?), Lincoln Mint, Moneyer Siferth.
Ref. no: BMC type VIII; N 850; S 1257

Obv. Crowned facing bust with sceptre, crown type 1, breaking linear circle at bottom, legend commences lower left, +PILLELM REX. Rev. Cross pattée, letters P A X S each within annulet in each angle, linear circle surrounding, +SIFER ON LINC.
19mm, 1.4g. GVF - Pleasing good very fine.

Anglo-Saxon England, Kent. Silver Portrait Penny of Cuthred, Canterbury mint.

Stock code: CM001313
Country: England, Anglo-Saxon
King (reign): Cuthred, 798-807
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Type Portrait Penny, Sigeberht of Canterbury Mint.
Ref. no: Naismith C33 1g this coin; N 211 ; S 877

Obv. Diademed bust right to edge of circle, head within linear circle, legend commences at lower left, +cvÐred rex cant. Rev. Cross pommée with wedges in angles, within linear circle, legend surrounding, +sigebearht moneta, unusual rounded G in Moneyer ’s name.
18mm, 1.3g. EF - A little ragged, a few tiny nicks otherwise toned, nearly extremely fine and extremely rare.

Anglo-Saxon England, Mercia. Silver Portrait Penny of Coenwulf, King of Mercia.

Stock code: CM001312
Country: England, Anglo-Saxon
King (reign): Coenwulf (796 - 821)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Type Portrait type, Moneyer Diormod
Ref. no: Naismith C39 1; N 347; S 916

Obv. Diademed bust right to edge of circle, head within linear circle, legend commences at lower left, +coenvvlf rex m. Rev. Double pincer shaped cross on cross pommée with wedges, +diormod moneta.
21mm, 1.3g. VF - A little bit ragged on part of rim, otherwise lightly scuffed near face, toned good very fine and very rare.

England, Edward IV. Gold ryal of Ten Shillings, Bristol mint.

Stock code: CM001309
Country: England, House of York
King (reign): Edward IV (1461 - 1470)
Denomination/metal: Gold Ryal of 10 Shillings
Date/mint mark: 1465-1470
Type Light coinage (1465-70), Bristol Mint.
Ref. no: Schneider 419; N 1550; S 1953

Obv. King standing in ship holding sword and shield, three whole lis in upper left quarter, ship rigging with three ropes to left, one rope to right, E on flag at stern, rose on hull, letter B in waves, no lower part to bowsprit, quatrefoils 3/3, trefoil stops both sides, initial mark sun on reverse only (1467-8), ED WARD; DI; GRA; REX; AnGL. Z. FRAnC; .DnS; I;B’; Rev. Rose at centre on sunburst, over cross with lis terminals, crown over lion in each angle, all within beaded and linear tressure of eight arcs, fleurs in spandrels, beaded circle surrounding, rose before final word, B for PER in legend, *ihc’; avt’; transiens; B’; medivm; illorvm* ibat; outer beaded border both sides.
36mm, 7.65g. VF - Lightly toned, with a good portrait, tiny edge chip, very fine and rare.

England, Mary I. Fine silver groat, issued 1553-1554.

Stock code: CM001307
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Mary (1553 - 1554)
Denomination/metal: Silver Groat
Date/mint mark: 1553-1554
Type Only issue
Ref. no: S 2492

Obv. Crowned bust left, 'MARIA DG ANG FRA Z HIB REGI'. Rev. Royal Arms on a cross fourchee, 'VERITAS TEMPORIS FILIA' (Truth, the daughter of Time).
24mm, 2.18g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck with a beautiful dark patination.

Very good example of this single issue (1553/54) of Mary, also the largest silver denomination, before she married Philip of Spain. Superb portrait, well struck, detailed and nicely toned. Rare. Aged 37 at her accession, Mary wished to marry and have children in order to leave a Catholic heir to carry on her religious reforms. To this end she removed her half-sister Elizabeth (a focus for Protestant opposition) from direct succession. Mary restored papal supremacy in England, abandoned the title of Supreme Head of the Church, reintroduced Roman Catholic bishops and began the slow reintroduction of monastic orders. Mary also revived the old heresy laws to secure the religious conversion of the country; heresy was regarded as a religious and civil offence amounting to treason (to believe in a different religion from the Sovereign was an act of defiance and disloyalty). As a result, around 300 Protestant heretics were burnt in three years - apart from eminent Protestant clergy such as Cranmer (a former archbishop and author of two Books of Common Prayer), Latimer and Ridley, these heretics were mostly poor and self-taught people. Apart from making Mary deeply unpopular, such treatment demonstrated that people were prepared to die for the Protestant settlement established in Henry's reign.

British India, Victoria. Gold Mohur, 1862C. Extremely fine.

Stock code: CM001359
Country: India, British
King (reign): Victoria (1837 - 1901)
Denomination/metal: Gold Mohur
Date/mint mark: 1862C

Ref. no: SW 4.1

Obv. VICTORIA QUEEN, single flower in lower jabot, no V on ground. Rev. No V below date.
25mm, 11.65g. EF - Extremely fine.

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