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Italy, Sicily - 1285 AD Pierreale - (GEF) Hammered, Gold

Stock code: CM000352X
£7,300
Country: Italy, Sicily
King (reign): Peter of Aragon & Constance of Hohenstaufen (1282 - 1285)
Denomination/metal: Gold Pierreale
Date/mint mark: Messina/Cross
Type: Hammered
Ref. no: Spahr 7; Biaggi 1302; F 654.

Obv. Crowned eagle facing right, two circles of legend Rev. Arms of Aragon, two circleas of legend
24mm, 4.4g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine, well struck and well centred. Carefully and neatly struck.

Superb condition and very rare medieval gold coin, certainly ranking as one of the best known. Peter III of Aragon lived from 1239 until 1285 and, with Roger II and Frederick II, is considered one of the greatest Sicilian sovereigns of the Middle Ages. Peter became King Peter I of Sicily in 1282 as the liberating force behind the uprising and revolution known as the Sicilian Vespers. As an esquire and knight in his father's service, Peter fought against the Moors. He later succeeded to about half his father's realm, with the other half inherited by James, his younger brother. In 1262, he married Constance, daughter (and heiress) of Manfred of Sicily. The roles of wives are often overlooked in the annals of history, but Queen Constance was no mere footnote to great events. She joined Peter in Sicily in April 1283, meeting him at Messina with the couple's younger sons, James and Frederick, their daughter Violanta, and it is at this point that this heavy gold coin was struck. In fact, Constance was Peter's "regent" in Sicily in name and in a very real sense during his absence.

England - Charles I, Gold Triple Unite, minted Oxford during the Civil War, 1642

Stock code: CM000481X
£98,500
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Gold Pounds, Three (Triple Unite)
Date/mint mark: 1642
Type Oxford Mint, 'Declaration'
Ref. no: Schneider 286; N 2381; S 2724

Obv. Half length tall figure of Charles to left, wearing crown and full armour holding a sword and an olive branch. Plumes behind, 'CAROLVS DG MAG BRIT FRAN ET HI REX'. Rev. Declaration in a three line scroll, 'RELIG PROT / LEG ANG / LIBER PAR' (Protestant Religion, Laws of England, Liberty of Parliament), three plumes above with mark of value, date below; around 'EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI' (Let God arise and let the enemy be scattered).
46mm, 27g. GVF - Good Very Fine, strongly struck

TheTripleUnite, valued atsixty shillings, 60/-or three pounds, was the highestEnglishdenomination to be produced. It was struck at the Oxford Mint set up during the first English Civil War of 1642-6 and issued between January and March of 1642 at the hurriedly set up mint at New Inn Hall in Oxford. This huge coin was issued, at least in part, for use as gifts to those whom the King wished to 'cement' to his side in the Civil War. Thus he obverse design for the coin features an armoured bust of Charles I, with broadsword raised, and yet in visual dichotomy he bears an olive branch clutched over his heart. Charles was visually appealing to either nature of the benefactor he was seeking to entice. The bust on this coin is very hawkish which is the earliest type, later he had it changed to a more benevolent softer style. On the reverse he put his famous declaration – uttered in 1642 when he swore to to uphold the Protestant Religion, the laws of England and the freedom of Parliament. Very rare and spectacular coin!

Great Britain - 1739 AD Guineas, Two - (AEF) Milled, Gold

Stock code: CM000323X
£3,900
Country: Great Britain
King (reign): George II (1723 - 1760)
Denomination/metal: Gold Guineas, Two
Type: Milled Intermediate, laureate head
Ref. no: Schneider 576; S 3668

Obv. Laureate, draped bust left. Rev. Crowned, garnished Royal Arms – Great Britain, France, Ireland and Hanover.
32mm, 16.71g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine, reverse better. Lustre in protected areas of the field, clean coin

Handsome large gold coin of George II, little wear making it a pleasing and desirable coin. George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain and was born and brought up in Northern Germany. As king from 1727, George exercised little control over British domestic policy, which was largely controlled by Great Britain's parliament. As elector, he spent 12 summers in Hanover, where he had more direct control over government policy. He had a difficult relationship with his eldest son, Frederick , who supported the parliamentary opposition. During the War of the Austrian Succession, George participated at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743, and thus became the last British monarch to lead an army into battle. In 1745, supporters of the Stuart and Catholic claimant to the British throne failed to depose George in the last of the Jacobite rebellions. Frederick died unexpectedly in 1751, leaving George's grandson, George III , as heir apparent and ultimately king.

Bank of England, ONE MILLION POUND banknote 1948 - One of only two 'million pound' notes in existence!

Stock code: B000001X
£125,000
Country: Great Britain
King (reign): George VI - (1936 - 1952)
Denomination/metal: Banknote Pounds, One Million
Date/mint mark: Bank of England

0mm, 0g. VF - Small hole cancellation through signature. Light creases and some handling otherwise good very fine to about extremely fine and extremely rare.

One Million Pounds, 30 August 1948, D 000007, on Bank of England watermarked paper, PAYABLE ON DEMAND, signature of E.E. Bridges, Secretary to the Treasury, bottom right, stamped ‘CANCELLED, 6 OCT. 1948, BANK OF ENGLAND’. Monies received through the Marshall Aid plan after World War II, were subject to strict accountability. The Treasury had to borrow from the Bank of England on a short term basis and to help with the book keeping requested the printing of high value notes. The total order sent to The Bank of England printing works was for Three Hundred Million Pounds in varying denominations, starting from Twenty Five Thousand Pounds. It is believed that the entire issue was subsequently destroyed with the exception of numbers Seven and Eight for One Million Pounds which were presented to the British and American Treasury Secretaries respectively.

England, gold Double-Crown of James I, struck between 1606 & 1607

Stock code: CM000658
£1,850
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): James I (1603 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Crown, Double
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Escallop' – 1606 -07.
Type Second Coinage, Fourth bust.
Ref. no: Schneider 33; N 2087; S 2622.

Obv. Crowned, cuirassed bust of king right , 'IACOBVS D G MAG BRIT FRAN ET HIB REX'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms dividing 'IR', 'HENRICVS ROSAS REGNA IACOBVS', (Henry [united] the roses, James the kingdoms).
29mm, 4.92g. AEF - Very Fine - or better

Issued from 1605 - 11, this denomination with the fourth bust is an uncommon coin and although this piece has seen a little wear all the main features are clearly visible with no weak areas in the legend on both sides. The coinage of James I is a very large and varied issue – more so than any other monarch, many new and innovatively designed pieces were introduced during this reign as well as several new denominations. It is interesting to note the reverse legend of this coin - having become king James I of England, James VI of Scotland was very keen to unite the two kingdoms – a concept which is still current and just as controversial today !

England, gold Quarter Ryal (2/6) of Edward IV – c. 1467

Stock code: CM000646
£1,850
Country: England, House of York
King (reign): Edward IV (1471 - 1483)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, 2 and 6 Pence (Quarte
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Sun/Sun' – 1467 – 1468.
Type Light Coinage
Ref. no: Schneider 397; N 1560; S 1965.

Obv. Royal Arms dividing rose and star, 'E' above – all within a quatrefoil, 'EDWARD D I GRA REX ANGL Z FR'. Rev. Rose on star as centre of a cross fleur de lisee, lions in angles all within a tressure of eight arches, 'EXALTABUTVR IN GLORIA (he shall be exalted in glory)).
19mm, 1.94g. - Good very Fine, well struck.

Very pretty little coin. Has seen a little wear but otherwise well and centrally struck, Also, as they were usually struck on quite small flans - this is a very good example as most of the legend, on either side, is on the flan and thus legible. The slightly reduced gold coins 'Light Issue' were introduced in 1464 and this new denomination was called a Ryal worth 10 shillings with two fractions the half and the quarter. The Quarter Ryal is not particularly rare – but does not turn up very much in good condition.

Turkey, Republic large gold 'Monnaie de Luxe 500 Kurush 1927.

Stock code: CM001149
£4,500
Country: Turkey
King (reign): Republic
Denomination/metal: Gold Kurush, 500
Date/mint mark: 1927
Type Monnaie de Luxe Series
Ref. no: KM 848; F 84

Obv. Radiant star and crescent above inscription within laurel and barley wreath Rev. Inscription and date within a floral wreath wreath
50mm, 35.03g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine.

Carrying on the Royal Ottoman tradition of issuing these large gold coins, the new Turkish Republic issued a 'Monnaie de Luxe' 500 kurush – very small mintage of 2,242 pieces only. It bears the new symbols of the republic a star and crescent but at the same time recalls the elaborate calligraphy of the Sultans but is now dated AD. Made in coin denomination weights they were intended for presentation purposes or jewellery and thus they are usually found mounted. This piece is not and consequently is a rare and desirable piece.

England, Charles I gold Unite (20/-) issued 134 – 1635.

Stock code: CM001152
£3,150
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, Twenty (Unite)
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Bell' 1634 – 35.
Type Tower Mint, Group D, Bust 5.
Ref. no: N 2153; S 2692.

Obv. Crowned, draped bust left, denomination 'XX' to right, CAROLVS D' G' MA' BR' FR' ET HI' REX'. Rev. Crowned, garnished almost round Royal Arms dividing crowned 'CR', 'FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA' (Through concord kingdoms flourish).
32mm, 9.05g. VF - Very Fine, well struck though weakness in one part of legend.

Superb and traditional lace collared portrait of Charles, apart from one small area all legends strongly and clearly struck – very attractive example and rare thus. Interesting to note that the fashion of ruffs had now died out and contrary to his earlier issues we see Charles wearing a lace collar - with which we normally associate the 'Cavaliers'.

Viking England, Anlaf Guthfrithsson silver 'Raven' penny, struck at York , 939 - 941

Stock code: CM001154
£24,000
Country: England, Celtic
King (reign): Anlaf Guthfriston (939 -941)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Date/mint mark: 939 – 941
Type Hiberno Norse Viking issue, struck YORK
Ref. no: N 537; S 1019

Obv. Raven with wings displayed and head turned to left, ' •+A•NLAF CVNVNC IL' (Anlaf king). Rev. Small cross pattee in centre '+•A•ÐEL•FERD MINET RG' (Athelferd Moneyer).
20mm, 1.21g. EF - Better than Extremely Fine, well struck and beautifully toned, likely best example known. Once 'slabbed' and graded by NGC as 'MS62' [their certificate inc.].

Superb, exceptionally rare and archetypal Viking coin, generally considered to be the best example in existence! Anlaf Guthfrithsson was the Viking King of Dublin who had come over to England and brought with him an Hiberno-Norse army to support the two Scottish kings - Constantine II and Owen I against Aethelstan, King of Anglo-Saxon England. This combined Norse-Celtic force lost the massive and very bloody battle of Brunanburh in 937 believed to be somewhere in the Wirral - but Anlaf survived the route and escaped back to Ireland. A few years later after the death of Aethelstan in 939, in a period of uncertainty, he returned and successfully seized York and parts of the East Midlands and set up a Viking kingdom which lasted for ten years . This archetypal Viking coin the ‘Raven Penny’ was minted during this short rule, for he died two years later in 941. The obverse legend means ‘King Anlaf’ (Olaf) in Old Norse and is one of the earliest surviving texts in this language. Most Viking coins had Latin inscriptions like Anglo-Saxon coins of the period so this coin is truly Viking and doubly so as it features the Viking war standard - the raven – or is it an eagle? Both birds were associated with the Norse god "Odin", but the eagle is also associated with St John the Evangelist, so the religious message of the coins is uncertain. It could be a deliberately pagan symbol, or one which both pagans and Christians could accept. This is a very rare coin and this particular piece is exceptionally rare as it is very likely the best example in existence. With its ‘Old Norse’ legends and splendid raven it is everything one would expect a Viking coin to look like and thus has become an iconic coin.

Moors of Spain (Murabitun), 'Ali ibn Yusuf gold dinar minted Algeciras, 507h (AD 1110 -11).

Stock code: CM001144
£3,250
Country: Islamic, MURABITUN (Almoravid)
King (reign): 'Ali ibn Yusef, 1106 – 1143
Denomination/metal: Gold Dinar
Date/mint mark: 507h (AD 1110 /11).
Type Algeciras Mint

Obv. Kufic inscription. At the centre, the text consists of five lines: 'La illah ila Allah / Muhammad rassoul Allah / amir al-muslimine Ali bin / Yusuf walie ahdih / al-amir Tashufin' (Of the divine there is only God, Muhammad is the Messenger of God. The prince of the Muslims, Ali ibn Yusuf, who is the successor of the prince Tashufin). Rev. Kufic inscriptions - At the centre, the text consists of four lines: 'Al-imam / abdu / allah / amir al-Muminin' (The Imam Abdullah, prince of the believers). Around, date and mint.
25mm, 4.06g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine, well struck with some original lustre.

A superb condition Gold Dinar issued by the Moors of Spain under 'Ali ibn Yusuf minted in Algeciras on the south coast, dated 507h (1110-11 AD). Rare and in this condition particularly so – an iconic coin of the Moors of Spain. The Almoravids were a Berber confederation and Ali ibn Yusuf succeeded his father upon his death in 1106 as the 5th. Almoravid (or Murabitun dynasty) king and as such was ruler in North Africa and Al-Andalus in Spain and towards the middle of his reign all of Muslim Spain apart from Valencia He was an ethnic Berber and reigned 1106–1142 A.D and would have battled Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar . . . known as El Cid "Campeador" of the state of Valencia The Moors under 'Ali ibn Yusuf invaded the province of Toledo and carried terror to the gates of the capital of Christian Spain - they also invaded Portugal and even got as far north as to lay siege to Barcelona. It was at this point in 1111 (when this coin was issued) that the Christian leader Alfonso I of Aragon engaged them and although the outcome of this battle was actually indecisive it did have the effect of causing the Moors to abandon Catalonia and retreat south. Subsequently Alfonso went into the offensive against Ali ibn Yusuf's invaders and the Moors lost almost all the territory south of the Ebro. Saragossa was then lost to them in 1118 after a four years' series of operations and Alfonso made it his capital. In 1125 the Christians invaded Andalusia at the invitation of the Mozarabes, or Christian inhabitants of that country; and although Ali ibn Yusuf managed to hold onto Granada, the tide had turned and the Christians repossessed most of Iberian peninsular.

England, Edward I. Silver Groat 1279 - c1281. 'One of the finest known'.

Stock code: CM001125
£23,500
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Cross potent',
Type New Coinage, Variery 'F'.
Ref. no: SCBI 39 var G; Allen F6/R37; Fox 2; n 1006; S 1379h

Obv. Crowned bust in quatrefoil of two lines, rosets in angles, triple pellet stops, 'EDWARDVS : DI : GRA : REX : ANGL'. Rev. Long Cross, triple pellets in angles, inner and outer legend, 'DNS HIBN'E DVX AQVT', (Lord of Ireland, duke of Aquitaine'), 'CIVI LONDONIA' (city of London).
29mm, 5.45g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck and attractively patinated.

Outstanding piece, Iconic coin and one of the finest known – certainly the best on the market in the last ten years. In 1279 Edward introduced this large silver fourpence for the first time in England as part of his 'New Coinage'. For some reason it was not a success and it's minting appears to have been abandoned only a few years later in around 1281. Two specimens were found in the Dover Hoard put down in 1295 and from then on there is no hoard evidence which suggests that they did not even circulate by the end of the 1290s. The majority exist today from single finds – but most of these are gilded and/or have soldered mounts on the back which suggests that their primary use, ultimately seems to have been jewellery! Consequently, as well as being extremely rare they normally are found mounted which makes the perfect example even more difficult to find! This is not only a very rare coin but an outstanding example of the first groat issued in England, a denomination which would only be resumed by Edward's grandson some sixty years later in 1351!

Great Britain, George III. 'Pattern' Five Guineas by R. Yeo, struck in 1777 - Unique!

Stock code: CM001131
£10,750
King (reign): George III (1760 - 1820)
Date/mint mark: 1777
Type Pattern 'en medaille', Plain Edge.
Ref. no: cf.W&R.78; cf.L&S.3; cf.S 3723A.

Obv. Laureate bust right with hair extending below bust, 'GEORGIVS III DEI GRATIA'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms in an ornate ogee shield, 'M B F ET H REX F D B ET L D S R I AT ET E', (King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Duke of Brunswick and Luneburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire and Elector).
38mm, 2.105g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine attractively patinated (encapsulated by CGS).

Unique Piece thus the ultimate rarity. Known in gold from a couple of specimens but not in any other metal and thought to be of the hand of Richard Yeo (died 1779). This probably represents a first striking in the production of the pattern coin – a soft whitemetal flan would have been used so as not to harm the dies in any way and thus an initial idea of the realistic appearance coin could be gained. At the beginning of George III's reign the die-engravers Pingo and Yeo, inspired by Tanner, were competing for the commission to design Britain's gold coinage. As it turned out only guineas were issued – probably due to the poor state of the machinery at the Royal Mint. Thus to own a Five Guinea piece of George III all that can be had is a handful of extremely rare patterns such as this.

England, James I gold Unite (20 shillings) issued 1604 – 1605.

Stock code: CM001061
£3,250
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): James VI (1567 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, Twenty (Unite)
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Lis' – Nov. 1604 – Jun. 1605.
Type Second Issue.

Obv. Crowned king in full armour right holding orb and sceptre, IACOBVS DG MAG BRIT FRANC ET HIB REX'. Rev. Crowned and garnished Royal Arms dividing 'IR', FACIAM EOS IN GENTEM VNAM'. (I will make them into one nation).
37mm, 9.84g. AVF - About Very Fine, well struck but with a little wear.

Although this coin has seen a little wear, because it was strongly stuck all the main features are still visible and it is still a very attractive piece of this first Stuart monarch of England. Called a 'Unite' because of James's wish to 'unite' the nations of England and Scotland – which sentiment he chose to be the reverse legend of his twenty Shillings piece. This is a concept that is particularly relevant today !

England, Edward IV gold Ryal (10 shillings), light coinage, London mint, 1464 – 1470.

Stock code: CM001060
£4,750
Country: England, House of York
King (reign): Edward IV (1461 - 1470)
Denomination/metal: Gold Ryal
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Crown' on rev. only – 1465 – 70.
Type Second or 'Light coinage'.
Ref. no: Schneider 363v; N 1549 S 1950.

Obv. Crowned king in armour holding sword and Royal Arms within an antique ship with a rose in the middle and banner containing an 'E' on the stern, 'EDWARD DI GRA REX ANGL S FRANC DNS IB'. Rev. Cross 'fleurdelise' with crowned leopards in angles, rose on star in centre, all within tressure of eight arches, lis in outer angles, no mm; 'IHC AVT' TRANSIENS PER MEDIVM ILLORVM IBAT', (But Jesus, passing in the midst of them, went his way).
34mm, 7.59g. GVF - Good Extremely Fine, well and centrally struck on a small flan.

Attractive piece with details sharp and clear – especially king's facial features, details of the boat and intricate cross on the other side. Issued in the middle of the wars of the Roses, a very turbulent time of civil war in England. Edward was an extremely capable and daring military commander and destroyed the House of Lancaster in a series of spectacular military victories - he was never defeated on the field of battle. Despite his occasional (if serious) political setbacks — usually at the hands of his great Machiavellian rival, Louis XI of France ! Edward was a popular and very able king. While he lacked foresight and was at times cursed by bad judgement, he possessed an uncanny understanding of his most useful subjects, and the vast majority of those who served him remained unwaveringly loyal until his death.

England, Elizabeth I silver 'milled' Halfcrown of 1601

Stock code: CM001068
£6,300
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown, Half
Date/mint mark: Mintmark '1' – 1601
Type Seventh issue.
Ref. no: N 2013; S 2583.

Obv. Crowned bust left with intricate bodice, 'ELIZABETH D G ANG FRA ET HIBER REGINA'. Rev. Royal Arms on cross fourchee, 'POSVI DEVM ADIVTOREM MEVM', (I have made God my helper)
35mm, 14.9g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine, reverse better.

This coin is well struck and very nicely patinated , especially on the reverse. The die work is very good and with this strong strike has resulted in marvellous and attractive detail to Elizabeth's portrait – the clarity of her features, the intricacy of her bodice and with little wear, all in sharp definition. This is a very good example and a fantastic contemporary portrait of this iconic Tudor queen.

England, Charles I silver Crown, struck during Civil War at Truro 1642 – 1643.

Stock code: CM001063
£1,500
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Rose' – 1642-43.
Type Truro Mint
Ref. no: S 3045.

Obv. King crowned and armoured on horse left, sash flying out, 'CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT FRA ET HI REX'. Rev. Round, garnished Royal Arms, CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO' (I reign under the auspice of Christ).
42mm, 28.82g. VF - Very Fine, upper bust a little weakly struck

These coins are normally quickly and badly struck but this example exhibits very little wear, a full legend with a very well struck reverse. However the upper bust of Charles is a little weak but the detail in the horse is very good. This coin is a better specimen than the plate coin in 'Coins of England'. When the Civil War began in 1642, the Tower mint fell into the hands of Parliament and Charles was forced to open a mints in Royalist held western England at Shrewsbury, Bristol and Oxford Truro and finally Exeter. (1642 -46). In 1643 the king was already minting coins in Truro and on 4 September, after a siege, Exeter surrendered to Prince Maurice and the city remained in Royalist hands till 9 April 1646. On 3 January 1644 Sir Richard Vyvyan received a Royal Commission to set up a mint in Exeter;

Italy, Vittorio Emanuele II large gold 100 lira piece 1864, Torino. Excesively rare – only 579 struck!

Stock code: CM001018
£17,500
Country: Italy
King (reign): Vittorio Emanuele II, 1861 – 1878
Denomination/metal: Gold Lira, 100
Date/mint mark: 1864
Type Torino Mint issue
Ref. no: Mont 126; Pag 451; F 8.

Obv. Bare head left, VITTORIO EMANUELE II'. Rev. Crowned arms in laurel wreath, 'REGNO D'ITALIA'.
34mm, 32.22g. EF - Extremely Fine, bright (old cleaning) with normal bag marks.

The brightness of this coin indicates it may have been lightly cleaned in antiquity. However, it is excessively rare with a mintage of only 579 pieces !!! It is large and iconic – the largest coin issued by Vittorio Emanuele II and consequently, much sort after. Even taking into account its brightness it is still very desirable and very rarely comes onto the market. It is one of the key coins of the Italian milled series – a very popular area.

Mughal Empire, Ahmad Shah Bahadur gold Mohur dated regnal 116?h (1750s), mint of Delhi.

Stock code: CM001039
£750
Country: India, Mughal Empire
King (reign): Alamgir II, 1754 – 1759
Denomination/metal: Gold Mohur
Date/mint mark: No regnal year and incomplete date (1750s).
Type Dar al-Khilifat, Shahjahanabad Mint (Delhi).
Ref. no: KM 467.10.

Obv. Persian script – Rulers's titles and incomplete date. Rev. Persian script - mint epithet, no regnal year.
21mm, 10.86g. EF - Extremely Fine, well struck.

Very good condition, well struck, large flan but with incomplete date – very attractive piece of this only six year emperor. Ahmed Shah Bahadur inherited a much weakened Mughal state. When Ahmed Shah Bahadur came to power the rule of the Mughal Empire was collapsing, furthermore his administrative weaknesses eventually led to the rise of his Vizier. He was emperor in title for six years, but left all affairs to state to rivalling factions. He was deposed by the Vizier Imad-ul-Mulk and later had his eyes gouged out along with his mother. After his overthrow, he was imprisoned at the Salimgarh Fort where he stayed for the rest of his life, finally dying in 1775 at the age of 50 during the reign of Emperor Shah Alam II. One of his sons, Bidar Bakhsh reigned briefly in 1788.

England, William I 'The Conqueror'. Silver Penny, 1068 – 1070. Struck by Ealgar at London.

Stock code: CM001211
£1,400
Country: England
King (reign): William I - (1066 - 1087)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Date/mint mark: 1068 – c1070
Type Bonnet Type, London mint.
Ref. no: Allen BNJ 2012 p.76; BMC 116; N 842; S 1251.

Obv. Crowned facing head with two fillets at each side, 'PILLEMVS REX AI'. Rev. Cross voided with annulet in centre, pellet between two crescents at end of each limb, pile in each angle, 'EALEAR ON LVND' (Ealgar at London).
20mm, 1.27g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine, well struck and very sharp portrait although reverse a little weak, attractively patinated.

Superb portrait of William and the first of a series that parts from the Saxon style of the profile portrait to the frontal portait, a couple of years or so after the battle of Hastings Initially William used Saxon moneyers and his coins looked very much like those of Harold – but this new series set a 'Norman' style. William's reign has caused historical controversy since before his death. William of Poitiers wrote glowingly of William's reign and its benefits, but the obituary notice for William in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle condemns William in harsh terms. In the years since the Conquest, politicians and other leaders have used William and the events of his reign to illustrate political events throughout English history. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England, Archbishop Matthew Parker saw the Conquest as having corrupted a purer English Church, which Parker attempted to restore. During the 17th and 18th centuries some historians and lawyers saw William's reign as imposing a "Norman yoke" on the native Anglo-Saxons, an argument that continued during the 19th century with further elaborations along nationalistic lines. These various controversies have led to William being seen by some historians either as one of the creators of England's greatness or as inflicting one of the greatest defeats in English history. Others have viewed William as an enemy of the English constitution, or alternatively as its creator!

England, Charles I silver Halfcrown struck 1635 – 1636.

Stock code: CM001241
£675
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown, Half
Date/mint mark: mm. crown, 1635-1636
Type Tower Mint, Group III, Third Horseman, Type 3a1.
Ref. no: N 2209; S 2773

Obv. Charles, crowned and in full armour, carrying sword in right arm, on horse walking left, 'CAROLVS D G MAG BRI FR ET HI REX'. Rev. Oval garnished Royal Arms, CHRISTO REGNO AVSPICE', (I reign under the auspice of Christ).
37mm, 14.73g. GVF - Good Very Fine, strongly struck with attractive tonng

Very handsome coin – not particularly rare but a well struck and clear horseman with clear features of king's face. Also very handsomely toned - a blue/grey colour with bluish iridescence to toning.

Anglo-Saxon England Mercia, Coenwulf. Silver Penny c805 – 810, struck at Canterbury by the moneyer Duda.

Stock code: CM001205
£5,250
Country: England, Anglo-Saxon
King (reign): Coenwulf (796 - 821)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Date/mint mark: c805 – 810
Type Portrait Type, Group II.
Ref. no: N 350; S 915.

Obv. Diademed bust right, '+ COENVVVLF REX'. Rev. Cross pommee over quatrefoil with pellet in each angle, within ring, '+ DVDA MONETA', (money of Duda).
19mm, 1.29g. VF - Very Fine or better, on a neat flan and handsomely toned.

Extremely rare and well struck coin in outstanding condition resulting in a fantastic contemporary portrait of this king of Mercia. Coenwulf (796 – 821) was a descendant of a brother of King Penda, who had ruled Mercia in the middle of the 7th century. He succeeded Ecgfrith, the son of Offa; Ecgfrith only reigned for five months, with Coenwulf coming to the throne in the same year that Offa died. In the early years of Coenwulf's reign he had to deal with a revolt in Kent, which had been under Offa's control. Eadberht Præn returned from exile in Francia to claim the Kentish throne and Coenwulf was forced to wait for papal support before he could intervene. When Pope Leo agreed to anathematize Eadberht, Coenwulf invaded and retook the kingdom; Eadberht was taken prisoner, and was blinded and had his hands cut off. Thus it is in the later part of his reign that coins were struck in Canterbury in his name Coenwulf also appears to have lost control of the kingdom of East Anglia during the early part of his reign, as an independent coinage appears under King Eadwald. Coenwulf's coinage reappears in 805 indicating that the kingdom was again under Mercian control.

England, Henry V. Gold Noble struck at London between 1413 & 1422.

Stock code: CM001180
£3,800
Country: England
King (reign): Henry V
Denomination/metal: Gold Noble
Date/mint mark: mm. pierced cross, 1413 - 1422
Type Class 'E'
Ref. no: N 1373; S 1744.

Obv. King in ship holding shield of Royal Arms and sword, annulet by sword arm, trefoil by shield, trefoil stops, 'HENRIC' DI GRA' REX ANGL' Z FRANC' DNS hYB'. Rev. Cross fleuree with 'h' in centre and crowned lions 'passant guardant' in angles, pellet under last spandrel, mullet after IhC, 'Ih'C AVT TRANSIENS PER MEDIV' ILLORV' IBAT' (But Jesus, passing through the midst of them, went on His way).
32mm, 6.86g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck but on a small flan. Small flaw running just through the legend into prow of ship (three o' clock on obv.).

Although on a slightly small flan this coin is in very good condition indeed – strongly struck with all details clear – especially the king's face and arms. The small flaw that three o' clock is hardly discernible and doesn't really detract that much form the 'eye appeal' of the piece. The nobles of Henry V are very similar to those of the previous reign – other than the development of privy marks which abound on this coin (annulets, pellet and trefoil).

Anglo-Gallic, Henry VI gold Salut d'Or (22s. 6d.), issued in Normandy between 1433 and 1444.

Stock code: CM001181
£1,750
Country: England
King (reign): Henry VI (1422 - 1461)
Denomination/metal: Gold Salut d'Or
Date/mint mark: 1433 - 1444
Type Rouen mint, Second Type
Ref. no: Elias 270c.

Obv. The Arms of France and England born by the Virgin Mary (left) and the angel Gabriel right and the word 'AVE' under sun's rays between them, 'HENRICVS DEI GRA FRACORV Z AGLIE REX'. 'Lion' mintmark at beginning of legend. Rev. Latin cross dividing fleur de lis and leopard (lion) passant guardant, 'h' below, 'XPCV VINCIT XPC REGNAT XPC IMPERAT', (Christ conquers, Christ rules, Christ commands).
27mm, 3.47g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine, well struck – a little doubly in parts of obv. Legend.

Handsome coin struck in France for the Lancastrian king of both England and France. We know that this piece was struck by the Rouen mintmaster Etienne Marcel because of his privy mark, a pellet within an annulet, under the last letter of both obverse and reverse legends and are recorded as having been issued between March 1433 and October 1444. Marvellous iconography for the unification of both countries. In 1422 the year old king of England inherited the French throne through his mad grandfather Charles VI of France. Under the regency of the Duke of Bedford Henry soon issued coins at various French mints and this one was struck at Rouen which is denoted by the lion mintmark at the beginning of the legend. Ten years later Joan of Arc would make an appearance which would eventually loosen the English grip on France until by 1436 only Normandy and part of Maine remained in Henry's control.

England, Gold Laurel (20/-) of James I - issued between 1621 & 1623.

Stock code: CM001185
£2,900
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): James I (1603 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Laurel
Date/mint mark: mm. thistle, 1621 - 1623
Type Third Coinage, 3rd. Bust
Ref. no: S 2638A.

Obv. Laureate, draped bust of James left, denomination 'XX' behind, 'IACOBVS D'G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms on cross fourchee, 'FACIAM EOS IN GENTEM VNAM', (I will make them into one nation).
35mm, 9.06g. AVF - About Very Fine, well struck.

Not very rare issue and exhibiting some wear - however, this piece has a well struck detailed portrait with all legends readable - also very nice even light toning and large flan thus desirable. In 1619 there was a currency reform and new 20 shillings piece was reduced in weigh making the former coins worth 22 shillings. To make it easy to differentiate between the two coins this new lighter coin was issued with James facing left - the other direction - and wearing a laurel wreath rather than a crown. Consequently it became known as a 'Laurel'.

English Colonial America, Silver 'Pine tree' Sixpence. Dated 1652, struck for Massachusetts in the 1660s.

Stock code: CM001217
£6,150
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles II (1660 - 1685)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny, Six (Sixpence)
Date/mint mark: (1652) generally issued in 1660s
Type Pellets at trunk variety
Ref. no: Noe 33; Breen 48; Whitman 670.

Obv. Pine tree within pellet ring, 'MASATHUSETS IN'. Rev. Date over denomination 'VI', 'NEW ENGLAND AN DOM 1652'.
19mm, 2.11g. GVF - Good Very Fine, dark toning, obverse struck a little off centre.

Superb example of this early and very rare American Colonial coin. Beautiful lustrous grey patination, well struck although the obv. Is a little off centre – particularly good example and difficult to better! As early as 1650, the colony of Massachusetts Bay was a commercial success. But an inadequate supply of money made trading difficult. England was not inclined to send gold and silver coins to the colonies, for she too were in short supply. Taking matters into their own hands, Boston authorities allowed two settlers, John Hull and his assistant Robert Sanderson, to set up a mint in the capital, Boston in 1652. The two were soon striking silver coinage - shillings, sixpences, and threepences. Nearly all of the new coins bore the same date: 1652. It is thought that the device, the pine tree, may symbolize one of the Bay Colony's prime exports, pine trees for ships' masts. Massachusetts coinage not only circulated within that colony, but was generally accepted throughout the Northeast of America, becoming a monetary standard in its own right. The majority of the coins were actually struck a few years after the date they bear (up to the 1670s) which poses the question,' why the 1652 date'? Some believe that it was intended to commemorate the founding of the Massachusetts mint, which did occur in 1652. Others believe the choice was a reflection of larger political events. Coinage was a prerogative of the King and in theory, these colonists had no right to strike their own coins, no matter how great their need. However, in 1652, there was no king - King Charles I had been beheaded three years previously, and England was a republic. The people in Massachusetts may have cleverly decided to put that date on their coinage so that they could deny any illegality if, as did happen, there were a re-establishment of the monarchy!

England, Charles I. Gold Unite (20 shillings), issued 1635 – 1636.

Stock code: CM001223
£3,000
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Shillings, Twenty (Unite)
Date/mint mark: mm. crown over bell, 1635 – 1636
Type Group 'D'.
Ref. no: Schneider 127/128; N 2159; S 2692

Obv. Crowned, draped bust left, denomination 'XX; to right, CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BR' FR' ET HI' REX'. Rev. Crowned, garnished almost round Royal Arms dividing crowned 'CR', FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA' (Through concord kingdoms flourish).
33mm, 8.88g. VF - Very Fine.

Attractive and traditional lace collared portrait of Charles, all legends strongly and clearly struck – exceptional example and very rare thus. Interesting to note that the mintmark is over the preceding year's mintmark, ie., that they used the die over two periods – just re-engraved the mintmark. Also note that the fashion of ruffs had now died out and contrary to his earlier issues we see Charles wearing a lace collar - with which we normally associate the 'cavaliers'.

England, Spectacular and large gold Rose-Ryal (30/-) of James I, struck between 1605 & 1606.

Stock code: CM001172
£15,000
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): James I (1603 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Rose Ryal
Date/mint mark: mm. rose; 1605 - 1606
Type Second Coinage
Ref. no: Schneider 10 ; N 2079; S 2613.

Obv. King enthroned in state robes holding orb and sceptre, Portcullis at feet, 'IACOBVS D G MAG BRIT FRAN ET HIBER REX'. Rev. Royal Arms on Tudor Rose, 'A DNO FACTVM EST ISTVD ET EST MIRAB IN OCVLIS NRIS', (This is the Lord's doing, and marvellous in our eyes).
41mm, 13.42g. AVF - Almost Very Fine, well struck so although some wear, in fact all details strong.

Very splendid and spectacular coin struck in the style of James’s Tudor predecessors - which denomination was discontinued after 1624’. It's Tudor style can be clearly seen in the large full-rose reverse and the monarch enthroned in full regalia on the obverse – a coin first introduced by Henry VII at the end of the 16th. Century. On inheriting the Tudor throne James Stuart was keen to illustrate the handsome example – well struck, good clear definition – particularly in his facial features, clothing, rose petals and both obv. and rev. legends. The coinage of James I is particularly diverse and this piece must count as one of the most splendid making it very desirable.

England, Charles I gold Unite -'Negro's Head' mintmark -1626 – 1627.

Stock code: CM001242
£2,750
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, Twenty (Unite)
Date/mint mark: mm. negro's Head; 1626 – 1627
Type Tower mint, Group B, Class 1a.
Ref. no: JGB 32/33; N 2148; S 2687.

Obv. Crowned, draped bust left, denomination 'XX' behind, 'CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX'. Rev. Crowned, garnished square-topped shield, 'FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA', (Through concord kingdoms flourish).
33mm, 8.99g. GVF - Good very Fine, bold strike with very clear obv. Mintmark

This coin is well struck and although it exhibits some wear, all the main features are clear. It carries the 'Negro's Head' mintmark which is very scarce making the coin desirable and ultimately rare in this grade. It has a particularly interesting early portrait of Charles in a Tudor/Jacobean style ruff which was shortly to go out of fashion in favour of the lace collar with which we normally associate the 'Royalists'. Handsome piece.

England, Commonwealth. Silver Crown, 1656. Large 6 over small 6 over 4. Outstanding condition!

Stock code: CM001237
£10,250
Country: England, Commonwealth
King (reign): Commonwealth (1649 - 1660)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown
Date/mint mark: 1656
Type '6' over small '6' over '4'.
Ref. no: ESC 9a; N 2721; S 3214

Obv. English shield (Cross of St. George) within laurel and palm wreath, 'THE COMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND' outer beaded circle surrounding both sides. Rev. English and Irish shield, value 'V' with stops above within beaded circle, date above, 'GOD WITH VS'.
44mm, 29.8g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine – as struck with attractive toning.

Outstanding condition piece – 'as struck' with attractive grey toning with traces of golden iridescence Very rare in such good condition and rare over-date. Also very interesting – for the first time we see the legends in English rather than Latin and also for the first time no monarch's head! This was only going to last some eight more years until the 'Restitution' and the restoration of the old style – Latin and Kings.

England, Edward VI large gold Sovereign issued at Southwark between 1549 & 1550.

Stock code: CM001176
£17,500
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Edward IV (1471 - 1483)
Denomination/metal: Gold Sovereign
Date/mint mark: mm. 'Y', 1549 - 1550
Type Second period, Southwark Mint.
Ref. no: Schneider 685; N 1906; S 2433.

Obv. Crowned King seated in throne, facing, 'EDWARD ; VI : D' G' AGL' FRAN' ET HIB' REX'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms with lion and griffon supporters 'ER' in cartouche below. 'IHS AVTEM TRANSIENS PER ME' DO ILLORV' IBAT', (But Jesus, passing through the midst of them, went His way).
36mm, 10.11g. AVF - Almost Extremely Fine, some wear but generally well struck. A little tooling in one area of the field between lower centre and right scroll on rev.

This sovereign of 20 shillings issued in Southwark during the first part of the Boy King's reign, ie when he was only ten years of age, is a superb contemporary portrait of Henry VIII's sickly son Edward VI. A little weakly struck at his face, otherwise other details clear. This was the first of three types of gold Sovereign depicting the boy King Edward VI dating to 1550. This second period coinage was only issued once the King was satisfied that the coinage could be sustained at a higher fineness of gold than his Father's debased issues. Therefore this Sovereign was issued at 22 carat fineness (0.917 fine), which we still use for British gold coinage today, and a 20-Shilling face value, though it weighed only just over 169 grains (10.977g), as the country continued to recover from the extravagance of Henry VIII. This example was struck at the Southwark mint where Sir John Yorke was the Under-Treasurer, hence the use of his surname initial 'Y' for the mintmark.

England, Edward VI silver Halfcrown, dated 1652.

Stock code: CM001191
£2,300
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Edward VI (1547 - 1553)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown, Half
Date/mint mark: 1652
Type Fine silver issue.
Ref. no: N 1934; S 2479

Obv. Crowned and fully armoured king, holding sword in right hand on fully caparisoned horse walking right, EDWARD VI D'G'AGL' FRA' Z HIBER' REX'. Rev. Royal Arms on cross fourchee, POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE' MEVM', (I have made god my helper).
36mm, 15.4g. GVF - Good Very Fine well struck.

Some superficial wear, but well struck so all main features of king and horse are clearly discernible. This coin is particularly interesting in that it claims a first - it is the first time an English silver coin bears the date in Arabic numerals! The coin is rare and as a type was only issued for three years – 1551, 52 and 53.

England, Henry VII. Gold Angel (6s/8d.), struck 1505 to 1509.

Stock code: CM001183
£2,250
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Henry VII (1485 - 1509)
Denomination/metal: Gold Angel
Date/mint mark: mm. pheon, 1505 - 1509
Type Type 5
Ref. no: Schneider 542; n 1698; S 2187.

Obv. The angel St. Michael spearing fallen dragon like devil, 'HENRIC DI GRA REX ANGL Z FR'. Rev. Ancient ship with central mast a cross upon which is the Royal Arms, 'h' and rose either side. 'PER CRVCE TVA SALVA NOS XPE RED', (By the cross save us, Oh Christ our Redeemer).
28mm, 5.03g. AVF - About Very Fine, well struck.

Some wear but all the main features visible – pretty little coin. The angel had been issued for nearly a hundred years but towards the turn of the century the design of St. Michael was changed from a fairly 'elfish' feathered figure to a winged knight in renaissance armour as seen here. The Lancastrian Henry (VII) Tudor married Yorkist Edward IV's daughter thereby bringing together the red and white roses to form the 'Tudor Rose' and thus ending the 'Wars of the Roses' which had devastated England for 50 years.

Great Britain, George III. Silver Five Shillings Bank token, 1804 struck over a Spanish 'Piece-of-Eight'.

Stock code: CM001240
£1,125
Country: England, Hanoverian
King (reign): George III (1760 - 1820)
Denomination/metal: Silver Bank Token
Date/mint mark: 1804
Type Bank of England Dollar issue.
Ref. no: S 3768

Obv. Laureate, draped bust left, 'GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX'. Rev. Britannia seated left holding shield and olive branch, 'BANK OF ENGLAND' and within a mural crowned band 'FIVE SHILLINGS, DOLLAR'.
41mm, 26.69g. UC - Uncirculated, attractive toned lustre

Bank of England dollars were five shilling coins issued by the Bank of England struck over Spanish American Pieces of Eight. The Royal Mint was not striking enough silver coins which resulted in the circulation of Pieces of Eight Reales, from Spanish America, which were countermarked with a 'hallmark' to validate them. This was an unsatisfactory process so the Bank of England commissioned Matthew Boulton at his Soho Mint in Birmingham to produce a die that could re-strike the Pieces of Eight into recognisable British coins. This was done using Kuchler's design (his initials on bust) and this 5/- bank token, also known as a 'dollar', was issued as there was a dire need for silver coin. No large sized silver was struck in George III's reign until 56 years into his reign – and these countermarked pieces of eight and over-struck Bank 'dollars' were all that there was ! One can just make out details of the Piece-of-Eight undertype by looking at the lower part of the obverse, below the bust, close to the edge.

China Yunnan, General T'ang Chi-yao. Gold 10 Yuans, undated but issued 1919.

Stock code: CM001230
£2,400
Country: China, Yunnan
King (reign): General T'ang Chi-yao, 1913 – 1927
Denomination/metal: Gold Yuans, 10
Date/mint mark: 1919

Ref. no: F 10; KM 482

Obv. Half facing left bust of General. Rev. Crossed flags, figure '1' below.
24mm, 9.05g. AEF - About Extremely Fine, minor handling marks.

Tang Jiyao or T'ang Chi-yao (1883 – May 23, 1927) was a Chinese general and warlord of Yunnan during the Warlord Era of Republican China. Tang was military governor of Yunnan from 1913-1927. During the Xinhai Revolution, Tang attacked the revolutionary government of Guizhou with his Yunnan army, and conquered the province, becoming military governor of Guizhou. Liu Xianshi succeeded Tang as Guizhou Governor when he returned to Yunnan to succeed Cai E as military governor of Yunnan in in 1913. Tang agreed with Cai E that the army was the most important institution in China and should play a major role in government, leading to the Yunnan army set up as a major force. When Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself as the emperor of China in the December of 1915, Tang announced the independence of Yunnan with Cai E (Tsai Ao), Li Jiejun and others. He was also a leader of the army which fought successfully against the army of Emperor Yuan Shikai in the National Protection War. Tang then became military leader of the National Protection movement and was a notable figure because of his federalist, anti-Communist ideology and pro-Sun Yat-sen policies. After Emperor Cai E died in 1916, Tang helped Sun set up the Constitutional Protection Movement in 1917 and started his own party, the People's Party while remaining a member of Sun's KMT. He assisted Sun in defeating the Old Guangxi Clique and later Chen Jiongming's rebellion. Tang sought to use propaganda to gain publicity for himself on the national stage in China. In 1916 he was involved in smuggling confiscated opium to Shanghai but was betrayed to the British authorities, although much of the opium still ended up on the black market. He kept away from Shanghai and avoided arrest during the trial against officials involved in the smuggling and then set up an opium trafficking scheme in Yunnan - with monopolies, taxes, and licenses, and succeeded in producing large amounts of the drug as the growing of poppy plants was well suited to Yunnan's climate. He transported opium via Indochina to the port of Haiphong and then it was sent back up to China along the coast. When Sun Yat-sen was appointed as Grand Marshal of the military government in Guangzhou, Tang Jiyao was promoted to Marshal. The Guangxi Clique tried to seize the Yunnan Army and remove Tang as its leader in 1920.

Scotland, Charles I silver twelve-shillings, Intermediate Issue 1637 – 1642.

Stock code: CM001103
£375
Country: Scotland King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Shillings, Twelve
Type Third Coinage, Intermediate Issue
Ref. no: S 5559.

Obv. Crowned bust left, denomination 'XII' behind, CAR D G MAG BRITAN FR ET HIB REX'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms dividing crowned 'CR', small thistle above crown, QVE DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET' (What God hath joined together let no man put asunder).
31mm, 5.81g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck, weight adjustment marks.

Beautifully detailed bust and good example of this 'Intermediate' issue of superior coins issued while Nicholas Briot was working at the Edinburgh Mint. Charles I had sent the French die engraver up to Edinburgh to sort the coinage out in 1635 as 'Master of the Scottish Mint' and a few years later he was joined by his son-in-law John Falconer who eventually succeeded him in 1646. However, this series of coins was engraved either by Briot or Falconer under his father-in-law's direction, in the early years of 1637 – 1642.

Celtic Britain CORIELTAUVI, Vep Corf (retrograde) pale gold Stater AD 5 – 25.

Stock code: CM001196
£1,050
Country: England, Celtic
King (reign): Vasu Deva II (288AD - 300AD)
Denomination/metal: Gold Stater
Date/mint mark: cAD 5 – 25
Type First Coinage.
Ref. no: BM 3296; vA 930; S -

Obv. Crude wreath design. Rev. Disjointed 'Celticised' horse, three pellets below horses tail, 'VEP' above, '(C)ORF' below.
20mm, 5.2g. GVF - Good Very Fine.

Very interesting example of this Corieltauvi stater – with the upper part of the legend 'VEP' being retrograde. A very rare variation! The meaning of Vep Corf is not really understood – CORF could perhaps be read as COR F, i.e. son (Filius) of Cor, or does COR refer to 'Corieltauvi'. Vep was probably a 'chief' of the Corieltauvi, a tribe based in the English East Midlands and Lincolnshire, around the time of the Roman conquest of Britain. Who ever Vep was he probably produced coins over a considerable period as the series has many variations and issued coins from around AD 5 – 25.

England, Charles I. Gold Triple Unite, struck at Oxford 1642.

Stock code: CM001219
£70,000
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Gold Unite, Triple
Date/mint mark: 1642
Type Declaration issue, Oxford Mint.
Ref. no: Beresford Jones dies III/S2; Schneider 286; Brooker 832; N 2381; S 2724.

Obv. Crowned taller half-length armoured figure left, holding sword midway in field and long olive branch in left hand not touching upper shoulder, no scarf, Oxford plume to right, 'CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT FRAN ET HI REX'. Rev. Declaration inscription in three lines on a wavy scroll, 'RELIG PROT / LEG ANG / LIBER PAR' (Protestant Religion, Laws of England, Freedom of Parliament), three Oxford Plumes and value 'III' above, date below. 'EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI' (Let God arise and His enemies be scattered).
45mm, 26.92g. GVF - Good very Fine, well struck with a crisp bust, light handling marks.

The Triple Unite, valued at sixty shillings, or three pounds, was the highest English hammered denomination to be produced. It was struck at the Oxford Mint set up during the first English Civil War of 1642-6 and issued between January and March of 1643 (although dated 1642 ie in the old calender) at the hurriedly set up mint at New Inn Hall in Oxford. This huge coin was issued, at least in part, for use as gifts to those whom the King wished to 'cement' to his side in the Civil War. Thus the obverse design for the coin features an armoured bust of Charles I, with broadsword raised, and yet in visual dichotomy he bears an olive branch over his heart. Charles was visually appealing to either nature of the benefactor he was seeking to entice. The first bust on these coins was very hawkish (as on this example) and next year he had it changed to a more benevolent and softer style. On the reverse he put his famous declaration – uttered at Wellington in September 1642 when he swore to to uphold the Protestant Religion, the laws of England and the freedom of Parliament. A very rare (about two hundred are thought top be in existence) and spectacular coin! In January 1642 the 'Long Parliament had seized power in London and Charles was forced to move north. He reached Nottingham by late August but then turned west to Oxford which he reached in October and set up Court and prepared for war. On the 26th of October the Civil War commenced with the battle of Edgehill and then followed the famous battles and sieges of Naseby, Newark and Oxford. Peace negotiations in Spring 1646 came to nought the war continued into a second phase when the Scots invaded in 1648. During this time it was the King's sole right and prerogative to strike coins and to support the 'Royal Cause' supporters' plate, flatware, jewellery and any precious metal was donated to the king to turn into coin to finance the Royalist effort. Coins were struck at Oxford after the mint was hurriedly set up by Thomas Bushell in January 1643 to pay for men, arms, rent, supplies etc. for the war effort but these large gold coins, the ultimate image of Royal Power, were primarily used to procure allegiance. They were never intended to be saved and most were melted down at the end of the war to be turned into current coin – when the concept of 'kingship' had changed forever. A few survived and this rare and magnificent coin, the largest British hammered gold coin, is truly emblematic of this troubled age, the last king of England to rule by divine right.

Flanders, Louis II 'de Mâle'. Gold Lion Heaume, issued late 1360s.

Stock code: CM001228
£2,750
Country: Belgium
King (reign): Louis II de Mâle, 1346 – 1384
Denomination/metal: Gold Lion Heaume
Date/mint mark: late 1360s

Ref. no: Del 460; F 157; Gaillard 214

Obv. Helmeted lion seated left on Gothic throne, 'LVDOVIC DEI GRA COMES Z DNS FLADRIE' (Louis by the Grace of God, Count and Lord of Flanders). Rev. Ornate cross fleurdelisée in tressure, letters F,L,A,N in each angle, D in centre, 'BENEDICTVS QVI VENIT IN NOMINE DOMINE', (Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord).
32mm, 5.3g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine, well struck on a large flan.

Superb and magnificent piece of Gothic art on a coin- rare and in good condition. The gold coinage of Louis II of Flanders (1346-84) rivalled that of his contemporary King Philip VI of France in its splendour. In fact, many of his issues were direct imitations of the major French coinages, particularly the écu, a version of which was made in Flanders for nearly a century. But Louis also issued more distinctive pieces, such as this heaume, one of the the largest gold coins to be produced in medieval Flanders and Europe as a whole. The heaume takes its name from the central design - the ornamental great helm (heaume in French), rather comically worn by the Flemish lion which is seated on a spectacular and elaborate Gothic throne. When his father was killed at the Battle of Crécy against the troops of King Edward III of England in 1346, Louis inherited the French counties of Flanders, Nevers, and Rethel (as Louis III). In the Anglo-French conflict, the Flanders guilds, depending on the English wool trade, forced Louis to recognize King Edward III as his overlord and arranged an engagement to the daughter of the English king, Isabella. Louis managed to avoid this by fleeing to the court of King Philip VI of France. In 1347 he married Margaret of Brabant, which sparked a revolt in Ghent. Neverteheless, while the Black Death devastated the county and after Louis came to terms with the English king and in 1349 he could return to Flanders to succeed his father. In 1350 he gained credence by openly refusing to pay homage to the new Valois king John II of France. When his father-in-law Duke John III died without male heirs in 1355, he assumed the title of a Duke of Brabant and moved into the neighbouring duchy, but was unable to wrest it from his sister-in-law Duchess Joanna. Though Louis managed to defeat the Brabantian forces in the Battle of Scheut near Anderlecht (17 August 1356) and capture the cities of Mechelen, Brussels, Antwerp and Leuven, but he was unable to prevail against Joanna, backed by her husband Duke Wenceslaus I of Luxembourg and his mighty brother Emperor Charles IV. By the 1357 Peace of Ath he at least gained the rule over the small Lordship of Mechelen and the thriving city of Antwerp. Louis tried to govern as a Realpolitiker and continued a policy of neutrality, which kept him in favor with both France and England during the continued conflicts of the Hundred Years' War, initiating a period of stabilitiy and relative affluence in Flanders. With regards to his internal policy, his main aim was to prevent the formation of a broad coalition against him, as happened against his father. Except for his last years, he was successful in preventing this. In 1357 Count Louis II married his seven-year-old daughter Margaret III to the minor Duke Philip I of Burgundy, son of the French queen consort Joan I, who died from plague four years later. Sole heiress of her father's territories, she was a highly coveted bride courted by both Edmund of Langley, son of King Edward III of England, and Philip the Bold, son of King John II of France and Duke of Burgundy since 1363. After several years of tough bargaining, Count Louis II gave his consent to Philip and his brother King Charles V, in return he received the lordships of Romance Flanders (Lille, Douai, Orchies) and a payment of 200,000 livre tour

Japan, Tokugawa Shogunate. Gold (manen) Koban, issued 1860 to 1867.

Stock code: CM001186
£1,250
Country: Japan
King (reign): Tokugawa Shogunate, 1600 – 1868
Denomination/metal: Gold Koban
Date/mint mark: 1860 - 1867
Type Last issue
Ref. no: Cr 22d; Fr 17.

Obv. Fan-shaped recesses either end hold Pawlonia flowers (Chrysanthemum), below - two rectangular recesses each containing Japanese characters. Rev. Three small punches of a Japanese character.
35mm, 3.27g. GVF - Good very Fine.

These large oval coins were the last that the Tokugawa Shogunate produced. The Tokugawa Shogunate was a feudal military dictatorship in Japan that lasted from 1603 to 1868. Samurais, who were essentially professional warriors, were the primary leaders in this period, but all of them were governed and ultimately controlled by shoguns from the Tokugawan clan. The Emperor was considered the official leader of Japan, and for all official purposes the Shogunate acted merely as his administrative arm. In practice, however, the Shogunate controlled basically all of the social, political, economic, and environmental policies of the time. During this period the emperor was basically a figurehead who had to retain the people’s graces to stay in power, but wasn’t able to do much without someone from the Tokugawa house’s permission. In this way the Shogunate exercised a great deal of power, often through little more than influence. In the 1850s and 60s improved trade relations, many of which were illegal, changed things. It became very difficult to reconcile the commercial and capitalised society that the West brought with the military society of the Shogunate, and the clan ultimately lost power in favour of more democratic and flexible methods of government. The period that followed is known as the “Meiji Restoration,” and it was during this time in 1868 that the Emperor was returned to a position of real power and authority.

England, William III. Gold Five Guineas, dated 1699.

Stock code: CM001225
£15,750
Country: England, Orange
King (reign): William III (1694 – 1702)
Denomination/metal: Gold Guineas, Five
Date/mint mark: 1699 UNDECIMO
Type First Bust
Ref. no: Schneider 479; MCE 169; S 3454

Obv. Laureate draped bust right, 'GVLIELMVS III DEI GRA'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms in crucifrom, lion of Nassau of in centre, sceptres in angles, 'MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX'.
37mm, 41.62g. AEF - About Extremely Fine, rose toning.

Five guinea pieces were only issued for three years of William's reign so as a type are scarce. This example, although having seen a little wear is a 'clean' specimen – just a little wear on the raised curls and beautiful rose coloured toning to the bloom.

England, Charles I. 'Second Issue' Silver milled sixpence issued 1638 and 1639.

Stock code: CM001177
£800
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny, Six (Sixpence)
Date/mint mark: mm. 'Anchor', 1638 - 1639
Type Briot's Second Milled Issue
Ref. no: S 2860.

Obv. Crowned bust left, denomination (VI) behind, 'CAROLVS DG MAG BRIT FR ET HIB REX'. Rev. Royal Arms on cross recerclee,'CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO', (I reign under the auspice of Christ).
25mm, 2.93g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine, light correction marks on obv., very attractive iridescent toning to lustre.

Superb example of this Second Milled sixpence with fantastic iridescent lustre of blues and pinks. Charles employed the Frenchman Nicholas Briot who issued his machine made coins (ie milled rather than hammered) as an experiment in 1631 and 1632 and then again, after his return from Scotland, in 1638 to 1639 when this coin was made. This example exhibits virtually no wear although there are the normal correction marks - but otherwise has a fantastic portrait of the king. Although he produced superior coins that were well and precision struck, Briot and his milling machines were unpopular at the Tower of London. However in 1633 Charles had made Briot 'Chief Engraver' and a few years later Briot again attempted mechanisation at the Mint. Unfortunately, this second attempt was shelved after only a few months by the Civil War and thus in this piece we have not only a very rare and superiorly produced coin but also an important 'landmark' in the issue of milled British coins which would not be fully instituted at the Mint for a further thirty years.

English Colonial America. Silver 'Oak tree' Shilling, dated 1652. Struck for Massachusetts in the 1660s.

Stock code: CM001216
£5,150
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles II (1660 - 1685)
Denomination/metal: Silver Shilling
Date/mint mark: (1652) generally issued in 1660s
Type 'IN' at left variety
Ref. no: Noe 9; Breen 19; Whitman 500.

Obv. Oak tree within pellet ring, 'MASATHUSETS IN'. Rev. Date over denomination 'XII', ' NEW ENGLAND AN DOM 1652'.
25mm, 4.29g. VF - Very Fine, darkly tone with minor edge marks.

Very good example of this early and very rare American Colonial coin. Beautiful lustrous grey patination, well struck and nicely centred - a particularly good early American coin! As early as 1650, the colony of Massachusetts Bay was a commercial success. But an inadequate supply of money made trading difficult. England was not inclined to send gold and silver coins to the colonies, for she too were in short supply. Taking matters into their own hands, Boston authorities allowed two settlers, John Hull and his assistant Robert Sanderson, to set up a mint in the capital, Boston in 1652. The two were soon striking silver coinage - shillings, sixpences, and threepences. Nearly all of the new coins bore the same date: 1652. It is thought that the device, an oak-tree (issues also have pine-trees), may symbolize one of the Bay Colony's prime exports, oak for furniture and house building, pine trees for ships' masts. Massachusetts coinage not only circulated within that colony, but was generally accepted throughout the Northeast of America, becoming a monetary standard in its own right. The majority of the coins were actually struck a few years after the date they bear (up to the 1670s) which poses the question,' why the 1652 date'? Some believe that it was intended to commemorate the founding of the Massachusetts mint, which did occur in 1652. Others believe the choice was a reflection of larger political events. Coinage was a prerogative of the King and in theory, these colonists had no right to strike their own coins, no matter how great their need. However, in 1652, there was no king - King Charles I had been beheaded three years previously, and England was a republic. The people in Massachusetts may have cleverly decided to put that date on their coinage so that they could deny any illegality if, as did happen, there were a re-establishment of the monarchy! There is also some thought that the Crown might have been more likely to look kindly on a coinage with an oak-tree on it – after all Charles II, who was on the English throne when these coins were issued, had escaped Cromwell’s troops by hiding up an oak-tree!!!

Ireland, George III. PROOF - Silver Six Shillings Bank token, 1804, struck over a Spanish 'Piece-of-Eight'.

Stock code: CM001239
£1,675
Country: England, Hanoverian
King (reign): George III (1760 - 1820)
Denomination/metal: Silver Bank Token
Date/mint mark: 1804
Type PROOF, Bank of Ireland Dollar issue.
Ref. no: S 6615

Obv. Laureate, draped bust left, 'GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX'. Rev. Hibernia seated left holding harp and palm branch, 'BANK IF IRELAND TOKEN SIX SHILLINGS DOLLAR'.
42mm, 26.99g. UC - Proof Uncirculated, mirror fields with gold and blue iridescence to toning

Bank of England dollars were five shilling coins issued by the Bank of England struck over Spanish American Pieces of Eight. The Royal Mint was not striking enough silver coins which resulted in the circulation of Pieces of Eight which were countermarked with a 'hallmark' to validate them. This was an unsatisfactory process so the Bank of England commissioned Matthew Boulton at his Soho Mint in Birmingham to produce a die that could re-strike the Pieces of Eight into recognisable British coins. This was also done for the Bank of Ireland, such as this piece, except that the denomination was six, rather than five shillings and using Kuchler's design this 'proof' 6/- bank token was issued in Ireland where there was a dire need for silver coin. No large sized silver was struck in George III's reign until 56 years into his reign – and these countermarked pieces of eight and over-struck Bank 'dollars' were all that there was! One can just make out details of the Piece-of-Eight undertype by looking at the upper part of the obverse around the 'III' in the legend.

Anglo-Gallic, Edward the Black Prince, gold Chaise d'Or, Bordeaux Mint issued between 1362 & 1372.

Stock code: CM001197
£10,500
Country: England, AngloKing (reign): Edward the Black Prince (1363 - 1376)
Denomination/metal: Gold Chaise d'Or
Date/mint mark: 1362 -1372
Type Bordeaux Mint issue.
Ref. no: Elias 143; Elias Collection 241; Schneider 33; Poey d'Avant 2935

Obv. Full-length figure of Edward seated facing on ornate Gothic throne, holding sceptre in right hand, '+ ?D’· PO’· GnS · R?GIS · AnGLI? · PnS · ?QIT?nI?', (rosette stops), (Edward, first born of the king of England, prince of Aquitaine). Rev. Cross Collarino within ornamental quatrefoil, leopard in 1st. and 4th. angles, lis in 2nd. and 3rd., rosette stops - '+ DEVS . IVDEX . IVSTVS . FORTIS ' Z . PACIENS B', (God is a righteous judge, strong and patient)
28mm, 3.52g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine but soft strike resulting in lack of detail on face, reverse slightly off centre.

Superbly beautiful and quintessentially medieval coin and particularly interesting in that it is issued by the Black Prince, holding Aquitaine for his father Edward III of England. The chaise d'or is accounted the rarest of Edward's gold issues, and the only one that presents the prince as a peaceable ruler, bearing a sceptre rather than the ubiquitous sword. He arrived in Bordeau in July 1363 and with the cutting off of financial links with England produced this coinage issued by prince Edward titled as 'First born of the King of England'. The reverse legend – “God is Judge, Righteous, Strong and Patient" is at odds with the typical motto of Edward's coins, which usually seeks God's protection for the ruler as he wages war against his enemies. The chaise was probably struck during the time when Edward hired himself out as a mercenary to help Pedro the Cruel of Spain regain his throne. Pedro failed to pay the Black Prince the promised money, and Edward's attempt to extract more funds from the French lords under his suzerainty brought about the resumption of the war between England and France. Edward's health broke under the stress of constant campaigning, and he abandoned his fief in 1371, predeceasing his father in 1376.

Roman Gold Aureus of Augustus, mint Lugdunum. Struck 15-13 BC.

Stock code: CM001115
£32,000
Country: Roman
Denomination/metal: Gold Aureus
Date/mint mark: 15-13BC, 6h
Type Mint of Lugdunum
Ref. no: RIC 166a; BMC 450; Calico 212

Obv. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, bare head of Augustus facing right. Rev. IMP X (in exergue) bull butting right.
7.81g. EF - An excellent portrait of Augustus struck on a very broad flan, a few light marks, otherwise extremely fine, a very attractive example.