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Italy, Sicily - 1285 AD Pierreale - (GEF) Hammered, Gold

Stock code: CM000352X
Country: Italy, Sicily
King (reign): Peter of Aragon & Constance of Hohenstaufen (1282 - 1285)
Denomination/metal: Gold Pierreale
Date/mint mark: Messina/Cross
Type: Hammered
Ref. no: Spahr 7; Biaggi 1302; F 654.

Obv. Crowned eagle facing right, two circles of legend Rev. Arms of Aragon, two circleas of legend
24mm, 4.4g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine, well struck and well centred. Carefully and neatly struck.

Superb condition and very rare medieval gold coin, certainly ranking as one of the best known. Peter III of Aragon lived from 1239 until 1285 and, with Roger II and Frederick II, is considered one of the greatest Sicilian sovereigns of the Middle Ages. Peter became King Peter I of Sicily in 1282 as the liberating force behind the uprising and revolution known as the Sicilian Vespers. As an esquire and knight in his father's service, Peter fought against the Moors. He later succeeded to about half his father's realm, with the other half inherited by James, his younger brother. In 1262, he married Constance, daughter (and heiress) of Manfred of Sicily. The roles of wives are often overlooked in the annals of history, but Queen Constance was no mere footnote to great events. She joined Peter in Sicily in April 1283, meeting him at Messina with the couple's younger sons, James and Frederick, their daughter Violanta, and it is at this point that this heavy gold coin was struck. In fact, Constance was Peter's "regent" in Sicily in name and in a very real sense during his absence.

England - Charles I, Gold Triple Unite, minted Oxford during the Civil War, 1642

Stock code: CM000481X
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Gold Pounds, Three (Triple Unite)
Date/mint mark: 1642
Type Oxford Mint, 'Declaration'
Ref. no: Schneider 286; N 2381; S 2724

Obv. Half length tall figure of Charles to left, wearing crown and full armour holding a sword and an olive branch. Plumes behind, 'CAROLVS DG MAG BRIT FRAN ET HI REX'. Rev. Declaration in a three line scroll, 'RELIG PROT / LEG ANG / LIBER PAR' (Protestant Religion, Laws of England, Liberty of Parliament), three plumes above with mark of value, date below; around 'EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI' (Let God arise and let the enemy be scattered).
46mm, 27g. GVF - Good Very Fine, strongly struck

TheTripleUnite, valued atsixty shillings, 60/-or three pounds, was the highestEnglishdenomination to be produced. It was struck at the Oxford Mint set up during the first English Civil War of 1642-6 and issued between January and March of 1642 at the hurriedly set up mint at New Inn Hall in Oxford. This huge coin was issued, at least in part, for use as gifts to those whom the King wished to 'cement' to his side in the Civil War. Thus he obverse design for the coin features an armoured bust of Charles I, with broadsword raised, and yet in visual dichotomy he bears an olive branch clutched over his heart. Charles was visually appealing to either nature of the benefactor he was seeking to entice. The bust on this coin is very hawkish which is the earliest type, later he had it changed to a more benevolent softer style. On the reverse he put his famous declaration – uttered in 1642 when he swore to to uphold the Protestant Religion, the laws of England and the freedom of Parliament. Very rare and spectacular coin!

Bank of England, ONE MILLION POUND banknote 1948 - One of only two 'million pound' notes in existence!

Stock code: B000001X
Country: Great Britain
King (reign): George VI - (1936 - 1952)
Denomination/metal: Banknote Pounds, One Million
Date/mint mark: Bank of England

0mm, 0g. VF - Small hole cancellation through signature. Light creases and some handling otherwise good very fine to about extremely fine and extremely rare.

One Million Pounds, 30 August 1948, D 000007, on Bank of England watermarked paper, PAYABLE ON DEMAND, signature of E.E. Bridges, Secretary to the Treasury, bottom right, stamped ‘CANCELLED, 6 OCT. 1948, BANK OF ENGLAND’. Monies received through the Marshall Aid plan after World War II, were subject to strict accountability. The Treasury had to borrow from the Bank of England on a short term basis and to help with the book keeping requested the printing of high value notes. The total order sent to The Bank of England printing works was for Three Hundred Million Pounds in varying denominations, starting from Twenty Five Thousand Pounds. It is believed that the entire issue was subsequently destroyed with the exception of numbers Seven and Eight for One Million Pounds which were presented to the British and American Treasury Secretaries respectively.

England, Charles I silver Crown, struck during Civil War at Truro 1642 – 1643.

Stock code: CM001063
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Rose' – 1642-43.
Type Truro Mint
Ref. no: S 3045.

Obv. King crowned and armoured on horse left, sash flying out, 'CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT FRA ET HI REX'. Rev. Round, garnished Royal Arms, CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO' (I reign under the auspice of Christ).
42mm, 28.82g. VF - Very Fine, upper bust a little weakly struck

These coins are normally quickly and badly struck but this example exhibits very little wear, a full legend with a very well struck reverse. However the upper bust of Charles is a little weak but the detail in the horse is very good. This coin is a better specimen than the plate coin in 'Coins of England'. When the Civil War began in 1642, the Tower mint fell into the hands of Parliament and Charles was forced to open a mints in Royalist held western England at Shrewsbury, Bristol and Oxford Truro and finally Exeter. (1642 -46). In 1643 the king was already minting coins in Truro and on 4 September, after a siege, Exeter surrendered to Prince Maurice and the city remained in Royalist hands till 9 April 1646. On 3 January 1644 Sir Richard Vyvyan received a Royal Commission to set up a mint in Exeter;

England, Edward I. Silver Groat 1279 - c1281. 'One of the finest known'.

Stock code: CM001125
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Cross potent',
Type New Coinage, Variery 'F'.
Ref. no: SCBI 39 var G; Allen F6/R37; Fox 2; n 1006; S 1379h

Obv. Crowned bust in quatrefoil of two lines, rosets in angles, triple pellet stops, 'EDWARDVS : DI : GRA : REX : ANGL'. Rev. Long Cross, triple pellets in angles, inner and outer legend, 'DNS HIBN'E DVX AQVT', (Lord of Ireland, duke of Aquitaine'), 'CIVI LONDONIA' (city of London).
29mm, 5.45g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck and attractively patinated.

Outstanding piece, Iconic coin and one of the finest known – certainly the best on the market in the last ten years. In 1279 Edward introduced this large silver fourpence for the first time in England as part of his 'New Coinage'. For some reason it was not a success and it's minting appears to have been abandoned only a few years later in around 1281. Two specimens were found in the Dover Hoard put down in 1295 and from then on there is no hoard evidence which suggests that they did not even circulate by the end of the 1290s. The majority exist today from single finds – but most of these are gilded and/or have soldered mounts on the back which suggests that their primary use, ultimately seems to have been jewellery! Consequently, as well as being extremely rare they normally are found mounted which makes the perfect example even more difficult to find! This is not only a very rare coin but an outstanding example of the first groat issued in England, a denomination which would only be resumed by Edward's grandson some sixty years later in 1351!

Italy, Vittorio Emanuele II large gold 100 lira piece 1864, Torino. Excesively rare – only 579 struck!

Stock code: CM001018
Country: Italy
King (reign): Vittorio Emanuele II, 1861 – 1878
Denomination/metal: Gold Lira, 100
Date/mint mark: 1864
Type Torino Mint issue
Ref. no: Mont 126; Pag 451; F 8.

Obv. Bare head left, VITTORIO EMANUELE II'. Rev. Crowned arms in laurel wreath, 'REGNO D'ITALIA'.
34mm, 32.22g. EF - Extremely Fine, bright (old cleaning) with normal bag marks.

The brightness of this coin indicates it may have been lightly cleaned in antiquity. However, it is excessively rare with a mintage of only 579 pieces !!! It is large and iconic – the largest coin issued by Vittorio Emanuele II and consequently, much sort after. Even taking into account its brightness it is still very desirable and very rarely comes onto the market. It is one of the key coins of the Italian milled series – a very popular area.

Celtic Britain CORIELTAUVI, Vep Corf (retrograde) pale gold Stater AD 5 – 25.

Stock code: CM001196
Country: England, Celtic
King (reign): Vasu Deva II (288AD - 300AD)
Denomination/metal: Gold Stater
Date/mint mark: cAD 5 – 25
Type First Coinage.
Ref. no: BM 3296; vA 930; S -

Obv. Crude wreath design. Rev. Disjointed 'Celticised' horse, three pellets below horses tail, 'VEP' above, '(C)ORF' below.
20mm, 5.2g. GVF - Good Very Fine.

Very interesting example of this Corieltauvi stater – with the upper part of the legend 'VEP' being retrograde. A very rare variation! The meaning of Vep Corf is not really understood – CORF could perhaps be read as COR F, i.e. son (Filius) of Cor, or does COR refer to 'Corieltauvi'. Vep was probably a 'chief' of the Corieltauvi, a tribe based in the English East Midlands and Lincolnshire, around the time of the Roman conquest of Britain. Who ever Vep was he probably produced coins over a considerable period as the series has many variations and issued coins from around AD 5 – 25.

England, ElizabethI. Gold Pound of Twenty Shillings, sixth issue, dated 1600.

Stock code: CM000975
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603)
Denomination/metal: Gold Pound, One (20 Shillings)
Date/mint mark: mm. 0; 1600
Type Sixth issue
Ref. no: Schneider 804; N.2008; S.2534

Obv. Ornate crowned bust l., beaded circle surrounding, initial mark cypher O (1600-01), pellet stops both sides,ELIZABETH. D: G. ANG’. FRA’. ET. HIB’. REGINA. Rev. crowned quartered shield of arms, E to left, R to right, beaded circle surrounding, SCVTVM. FIDEI. PROTEGET. EAM., outer beaded circle surrounding both sides.
37mm, 11.25g. VF - Dig at centre of obverse, otherwise toned Very Fine

England, Charles I. Gold Unite struck at Tower.

Stock code: CM000945
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Gold Unite
Date/mint mark: 1626 - 1627
Type Tower mint, group B, Class Ia, bust 2
Ref. no: cf.Schneider 122, cf.Brooker 33, N 2148, S 2687

Obv. Second crowned bust l., double arched crown, value in field behind, beaded circle surrounding, initial mark blackamorr's head both sides (1626-7), CARLOVS: D: G: MAG: BRI: FR: ET: HI: REX. Outer beaded circle surrounding both sides. Rev. Crowned quatered shield of arms, with light garniture, beaded circle surrounding, initial mark at end of legened, 'FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA'.
33mm, 8.93g. GVF - Very fine. A little ragged in parts, lightly toned with some red colour, good very fine and a rare mark.

Kingdom of Macedonia, Alexander III Great. Gold Sidon Stater, struck c333-305 BC

Stock code: CM000944
Country: Macedonia
King (reign): Alexander the Great (Alexander III), 336 - 323 BC
Denomination/metal: Gold Stater
Date/mint mark: c333-305BC
Type Sidon mint
Ref. no: Price 3458, Müller 205, SNG Berry 176

Obv. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet ornamented with a griffin. Rev. A???????-??, Nike standing l., holding wreath and stylis, caduceus below right wing
17mm, 8.58g. AEF - Fine style, attractive red tone, nearly extremely fine

England, Edward III. Gold Noble, Pre-treaty Period, struck between 1351-1361

Stock code: CM000943
Country: England, Medieval
King (reign): Edward III (1327 - 1377)
Denomination/metal: Gold Noble
Date/mint mark: mm. cross, 1351-1361
Type Pre-treaty period, series C/E mule
Ref. no: S 1486, Schenider 21, cf.Doubleday 48, N 1144/1160

Obv. King standing in ship holding sword and shield, ship rigging with three ropes to left, three to right, ornaments on top line of hull 1-11-11-1 with lions left, quaterfoils 4/4 on castles, with long bowsprit, legend with wedge tailed R's, reversed N's and faint annulet stops on obverse only, 'E DWARDo DEIo GRAo REXo ANGL oZo FRANCo D hy ' Rev. Tiny E at centre, ornate cross with lis terminals, crown over lion in angles, lis over lion in lower left quarter, all within beaded and linear tressure of eight arcs, small fleurs in spandrels, initial markk cross pattee, unbarred N's, curled R's and annulet stops +lhCoAVTEMo TRAllClEllSo Po MEDIVMo ILLORVo IBAT, outer beaded border both sides
32mm, 7.68g. VF - Very fine. Softly struck from lightlyrusted dies with associated marks, otherwise a bold very fine and rare.

Great Britain, Victoria. Silver Halfcrown 1840

Stock code: CM001328
Country: England, Hanoverian
King (reign): Victoria (1837 - 1901)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown, Half
Date/mint mark: 1840
Type Young head
Ref. no: ESC 673; S 3887

Obv. Young head left with two plain fillets in hair, ww incuse on truncation, date below. Rev. Crowned quartered shield of arms within wreath, edge milled.
31mm, GEF - Uneven tone, a few tiny obverse hairlines, otherwise an attractive good extremely fine, with reverse lustre.

England, Cnut. Silver Penny, quaterfoil type, Bedford mint.

Stock code: CM001332
Country: England, Medieval
King (reign): Cnut (1016 - 1035)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Type Quatrefoil type, Bedford Mint, Moneyer Leofwine.
Ref. no: BMC type VIII; N 781; S 1157

Obv. Crowned and draped bust left within quatrefoil, legend commences at lower left, +CNVT REX ANGLORVM. Rev. Long voided cross with pellet centre and tri-crescent terminals, over quatrefoil with pellet on each cusp, +LEOFPINE N BDE.
19mm, 1.23g. VF - Dark tone, a bold very fine and rare.

Celtic Britain, Corieltauvi. Gold Stater, c.45-10 BC.

Stock code: CM001342
Country: England, Celtic
King (reign): Corieltauvi
Denomination/metal: Gold Stater
Date/mint mark: c.45-10 BC
Type Uninscribed Coinage, Kite Type (c. 45-10 B.C.)
Ref. no: VA 825-1; BMC 3181-3; S 392

Obv. Abstract head of Apollo right. Rev. Disjointed horse left, kite-shaped box containing four pellets above, three-armed spiral below.
16mm, 5.47g. EF - A little softly-struck on obverse, otherwise extremely fine.

England, Mary I. Fine silver groat, issued 1553-1554.

Stock code: CM001307
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Mary (1553 - 1554)
Denomination/metal: Silver Groat
Date/mint mark: 1553-1554
Type Only issue
Ref. no: S 2492

Obv. Crowned bust left, 'MARIA DG ANG FRA Z HIB REGI'. Rev. Royal Arms on a cross fourchee, 'VERITAS TEMPORIS FILIA' (Truth, the daughter of Time).
24mm, 2.18g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck with a beautiful dark patination.

Very good example of this single issue (1553/54) of Mary, also the largest silver denomination, before she married Philip of Spain. Superb portrait, well struck, detailed and nicely toned. Rare. Aged 37 at her accession, Mary wished to marry and have children in order to leave a Catholic heir to carry on her religious reforms. To this end she removed her half-sister Elizabeth (a focus for Protestant opposition) from direct succession. Mary restored papal supremacy in England, abandoned the title of Supreme Head of the Church, reintroduced Roman Catholic bishops and began the slow reintroduction of monastic orders. Mary also revived the old heresy laws to secure the religious conversion of the country; heresy was regarded as a religious and civil offence amounting to treason (to believe in a different religion from the Sovereign was an act of defiance and disloyalty). As a result, around 300 Protestant heretics were burnt in three years - apart from eminent Protestant clergy such as Cranmer (a former archbishop and author of two Books of Common Prayer), Latimer and Ridley, these heretics were mostly poor and self-taught people. Apart from making Mary deeply unpopular, such treatment demonstrated that people were prepared to die for the Protestant settlement established in Henry's reign.

India, Victoria. Copper proof ½-pice, 1890. Calcutta mint.

Stock code: CM001338
Country: India, British
King (reign): Victoria (1837 - 1901)
Denomination/metal: Copper 1/2-Pice
Date/mint mark: 1890
Type Original proof
Ref. no: SW 6 567

Obv. VICTORIA EMPRESS, full jabot on the lower part of the Queens's dress.21mm, PROOF - Has been cleaned long ago, now re-toning, otherwise uncirculated.

Anglo-Saxon England, Normandy. Silver Penny of William I, PAXs type, Lincoln mint.

Stock code: CM001314
Country: England, Anglo-Saxon
King (reign): William I - (1066 - 1087)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Type PAXS type (1083?-86?), Lincoln Mint, Moneyer Siferth.
Ref. no: BMC type VIII; N 850; S 1257

Obv. Crowned facing bust with sceptre, crown type 1, breaking linear circle at bottom, legend commences lower left, +PILLELM REX. Rev. Cross pattée, letters P A X S each within annulet in each angle, linear circle surrounding, +SIFER ON LINC.
19mm, 1.4g. GVF - Pleasing good very fine.

England, Edward IV. Gold ryal of Ten Shillings, Bristol mint.

Stock code: CM001309
Country: England, House of York
King (reign): Edward IV (1461 - 1470)
Denomination/metal: Gold Ryal of 10 Shillings
Date/mint mark: 1465-1470
Type Light coinage (1465-70), Bristol Mint.
Ref. no: Schneider 419; N 1550; S 1953

Obv. King standing in ship holding sword and shield, three whole lis in upper left quarter, ship rigging with three ropes to left, one rope to right, E on flag at stern, rose on hull, letter B in waves, no lower part to bowsprit, quatrefoils 3/3, trefoil stops both sides, initial mark sun on reverse only (1467-8), ED WARD; DI; GRA; REX; AnGL. Z. FRAnC; .DnS; I;B’; Rev. Rose at centre on sunburst, over cross with lis terminals, crown over lion in each angle, all within beaded and linear tressure of eight arcs, fleurs in spandrels, beaded circle surrounding, rose before final word, B for PER in legend, *ihc’; avt’; transiens; B’; medivm; illorvm* ibat; outer beaded border both sides.
36mm, 7.65g. VF - Lightly toned, with a good portrait, tiny edge chip, very fine and rare.

England, William III. Silver Halfcrown 1700.

Stock code: CM001330
Country: England, Orange
King (reign): William III (1694 – 1702)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown, Half
Date/mint mark: 1700

Ref. no: ESC 561; S 3408

Obv. First laureate and draped bust right. Rev. Crowned cruciform shields, Lion of Nassau at centre, date above, edge inscribed in raised letters and dated DUODECIMO.
33mm, EF - Well-toned, a few small contact marks to portrait, two light hairline marks on reverse, otherwise extremely fine.

Mughal Empire, Aurangzeb. Gold Mohur, Surat, (107)7h.

Stock code: CM001352
Country: India, Mughal Empire
King (reign): Aurangzeb, 1658 – 1707
Denomination/metal: Gold Mohur
Date/mint mark: (107)7h, year 9
Type Surat mint
Ref. no: KM 315.45
20mm, GEF - Good extremely fine.

Mughal Empire, Aurangzeb. Gold Mohur, Dar Shajahanabad, 1098h.

Stock code: CM001351
Country: India, Mughal Empire
King (reign): Aurangzeb, 1658 – 1707
Denomination/metal: Gold Mohur
Date/mint mark: 1098h
Type Dar al-Khilafat Shajahanabad
Ref. no: KM 315.42
20mm, GEF - Good extremely fine.

England, Edward the Confessor. Silver helmet type Penny, Godric of Leicester mint.

Stock code: CM001333
Country: England, Medieval
King (reign): Edward the Confessor (1042 - 1066)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Date/mint mark: 1053-1056
Type Helmet type, Godric of Leicester Mint.
Ref. no: BMC type VII; N 825; S 1179

Obv. Helmeted bust right with sceptre to edge of coin, legend commences at upper right, edper d rex. Rev. Short voided cross with annulet centre, three crescent terminals, all within linear circle, +godric on leher.
19mm, 1.6g. VF - Weak in parts with a nice portrait, toned a bold very fine, reverse weaker, very rare.

Scotland, David II. Halfgroat struck at Aberdeen (very Rare) 1357-67.

Stock code: CM001377
Country: Scotland
King (reign): David II (1329 - 1371)
Denomination/metal: Silver Groat, Half
Date/mint mark: 1357-67
Type Second Coinage, Small, Young Bust, Aberdeen mint.
Ref. no: S 5112; Burns -.

Obv. Crowned bust left holding sceptre, 'DAVID DEI GRA REX SCOTORVM'. Rev. Cross Potent with five pointed voided star in each angle, outer legend 'DN'S PROTECTOR MEVS' (God is my Defender), inner legend 'VILLA ABERDON' (Town of Aberdeen).
23mm, 2.25g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck and nicely toned.

Superb little coin - beautiful condition and well struck resulting in all legend, both sides clearly legible. Secondly very rare because it was struck at Aberdeen. The vast majority of this issue were struck at Edinburgh and very few at the much smaller mint of Aberdeen and particularly this denomination. David was Robert the Bruce's only surviving son, born in 1324 when the Bruce was aged 50, and he was only five years old when his father died. At the age four, he was married to Joan, sister of Edward III of England (she was seven) as the Bruce tried to establish better relations with England. Following the death of Bruce in 1329, David was crowned at Scone on 24 November 1331, holding a small sceptre specially made for him. The young King David was driven into exile in France in 1334 but returned from there in 1341, deposing Edward Balliol for the last time. In response to an appeal for help from France, King David invaded England in 1346 but was captured at the Battle of Neville's Cross, remaining a prisoner at the English court until the Treaty of Berwick in 1357. He was returned to Scotland on payment of a large ransom and it was at this time that this second issue of coins was designed and this particular coin struck. David ruled with authority and included burgesses as well as nobles in the Parliament and trade increased during his rule. But he is frowned on for pushing the idea of a union of the Scottish and English crowns (in part to repay the ransom) but he also spent much of his time on self-indulgent fancies. David married a second time, to Margaret Drummond, but he died in Edinburgh Castle in February 1371 without legitimate issue. He was no doubt disappointed that his heir was his nephew, Robert II, son of Walter the 6th High Steward of Scotland and the founder of the Stewart dynasty. For many years he had regarded his nephew with considerable suspicion as Robert was a son of Marjorie Bruce, a daughter of King Robert I, and thus had a legitimate claim to the Scottish throne.

England, Charles I. Gold Unite (20 shillings) issued 1634 – 1635.

Stock code: CM001387
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, Twenty (Unite)
Date/mint mark: mm. bell; 1634 - 1635
Type Tower Mint under king, Group 'D', Bust '5'.
Ref. no: Schneider 151v; N 2153; S 2692

Obv. Crowned, draped bust left, denomination 'XX; to right, CAROLVS D' G' MA' BR' FR' ET HIB' REX'. Rev. Crowned, garnished almost round Royal Arms, 'FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA' (Through concord kingdoms flourish).
33mm, 9.04g. GEF - Extremely Fine, strongly stuck, clear and sharp definition.

Superb and traditional lace collared portrait of Charles, all legends strongly and clearly struck – exceptional example and very rare thus. Interesting to note that the fashion of ruffs had now died out and contrary to his earlier issues we see Charles wearing a lace collar - with which we normally associate the 'cavaliers'.

Charles I, Silver Crown 1642/43 issued during Civil War at Truro. Superb condition.

Stock code: CM001388
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown
Date/mint mark: mm. rose; 1642-1643
Type Civil War Provincial issue, Truro Mint.
Ref. no: N 2531; S 3045

Obv. King, crowned and in armour, on horseback left, holding sword erect in right hand, sash flying out behind 'CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT FRA ET HIB REX'. Rev. Oval garnished shield, 'CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO', (I reign under the auspice of Christ).
42mm, 29.72g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine, one small area of weak strike, beautiful toning. Small dig at 9 o' clock on rev.

Superb condition coin of this rare provincial mint, exceptionally good detail in both horseman and shield, handsome toning to lustre just a small area of weakness of strike in front of the king's head and on corresponding area over. One of the best examples known for this Cornish mint as it is virtually mint condition. and very rare as such – these coins were struck in makeshift conditions, quickly and carelessly to get coin out to pay the troops – only the weight was important and not the production quality. When the Civil War began in 1642, the Tower mint fell into the hands of Parliament and Charles was forced to open a mints in Royalist held western England at Oxford, Bristol, Shrewsbury, Exeter and Truro. Truro was greatly involved in the Civil War and in 1642 raised a sizeable force to fight for the King. The Royalists under Sir Richard Vyvyan set up a mint in Truro, from 1642 to 1643 - only for about twelve months at which point it was removed to Exeter. In 1646 the city fell to Fairfax and Charles had to escape by way of Falmouth.