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England - Charles I, Gold Triple Unite, minted Oxford during the Civil War, 1642

Stock code: CM000481X
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Gold Pounds, Three (Triple Unite)
Date/mint mark: 1642
Type Oxford Mint, 'Declaration'
Ref. no: Schneider 286; N 2381; S 2724

Obv. Half length tall figure of Charles to left, wearing crown and full armour holding a sword and an olive branch. Plumes behind, 'CAROLVS DG MAG BRIT FRAN ET HI REX'. Rev. Declaration in a three line scroll, 'RELIG PROT / LEG ANG / LIBER PAR' (Protestant Religion, Laws of England, Liberty of Parliament), three plumes above with mark of value, date below; around 'EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI' (Let God arise and let the enemy be scattered).
46mm, 27g. GVF - Good Very Fine, strongly struck

TheTripleUnite, valued atsixty shillings, 60/-or three pounds, was the highestEnglishdenomination to be produced. It was struck at the Oxford Mint set up during the first English Civil War of 1642-6 and issued between January and March of 1642 at the hurriedly set up mint at New Inn Hall in Oxford. This huge coin was issued, at least in part, for use as gifts to those whom the King wished to 'cement' to his side in the Civil War. Thus he obverse design for the coin features an armoured bust of Charles I, with broadsword raised, and yet in visual dichotomy he bears an olive branch clutched over his heart. Charles was visually appealing to either nature of the benefactor he was seeking to entice. The bust on this coin is very hawkish which is the earliest type, later he had it changed to a more benevolent softer style. On the reverse he put his famous declaration – uttered in 1642 when he swore to to uphold the Protestant Religion, the laws of England and the freedom of Parliament. Very rare and spectacular coin!

Great Britain - 1739 AD Guineas, Two - (AEF) Milled, Gold

Stock code: CM000323X
Country: Great Britain
King (reign): George II (1723 - 1760)
Denomination/metal: Gold Guineas, Two
Type: Milled Intermediate, laureate head
Ref. no: Schneider 576; S 3668

Obv. Laureate, draped bust left. Rev. Crowned, garnished Royal Arms – Great Britain, France, Ireland and Hanover.
32mm, 16.71g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine, reverse better. Lustre in protected areas of the field, clean coin

Handsome large gold coin of George II, little wear making it a pleasing and desirable coin. George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain and was born and brought up in Northern Germany. As king from 1727, George exercised little control over British domestic policy, which was largely controlled by Great Britain's parliament. As elector, he spent 12 summers in Hanover, where he had more direct control over government policy. He had a difficult relationship with his eldest son, Frederick , who supported the parliamentary opposition. During the War of the Austrian Succession, George participated at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743, and thus became the last British monarch to lead an army into battle. In 1745, supporters of the Stuart and Catholic claimant to the British throne failed to depose George in the last of the Jacobite rebellions. Frederick died unexpectedly in 1751, leaving George's grandson, George III , as heir apparent and ultimately king.

Bank of England, ONE MILLION POUND banknote 1948 - One of only two 'million pound' notes in existence!

Stock code: B000001X
Country: Great Britain
King (reign): George VI - (1936 - 1952)
Denomination/metal: Banknote Pounds, One Million
Date/mint mark: Bank of England

0mm, 0g. VF - Small hole cancellation through signature. Light creases and some handling otherwise good very fine to about extremely fine and extremely rare.

One Million Pounds, 30 August 1948, D 000007, on Bank of England watermarked paper, PAYABLE ON DEMAND, signature of E.E. Bridges, Secretary to the Treasury, bottom right, stamped ‘CANCELLED, 6 OCT. 1948, BANK OF ENGLAND’. Monies received through the Marshall Aid plan after World War II, were subject to strict accountability. The Treasury had to borrow from the Bank of England on a short term basis and to help with the book keeping requested the printing of high value notes. The total order sent to The Bank of England printing works was for Three Hundred Million Pounds in varying denominations, starting from Twenty Five Thousand Pounds. It is believed that the entire issue was subsequently destroyed with the exception of numbers Seven and Eight for One Million Pounds which were presented to the British and American Treasury Secretaries respectively.

England, James I gold Unite (20 shillings). Issued 1606-1607.

Stock code: CM001113
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): James I (1603 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Unite
Date/mint mark: mm. scalllop; 1606-1607
Type Second Coinage
Ref. no: Schneider 24; N 2084; S 2619.

Obv. Crowned, armoured bust of James right, holding orb and sceptre, 'IACOBVS D'G' MAG' BRIT' FRAN' ET HIB' REX'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms dividing 'IR', 'FACIAM EOS IN GENTEM VNAM', (I will make them into one nation).
9.94g. GVF - Good Very Fine, a week area on shoulder and corresponding position (Scottish Arms) on rev.

Particularly attractive coin and splendid contemporary portrait of this first Stuart king – although the piece has seen some wear, due to a strong strike (with the exception of the one small area on James's shoulder/Scottish arms) all the details are clear, particularly the king's facial features and armour .Called a 'Unite' because of James's wish to 'unite' the nations of England and Scotland that is broadcast by the reverse legend. A concept that is particularly relevant today !

Anglo-Saxon England, 'Light' gold Thrymsa Crondall type c. 620 – 645.

Stock code: CM001110
Country: England, Anglo-Saxon
Date/mint mark: c. 620 – 645.
Type Crondall, Witmen Type
Ref. no: Metcalf 1-21; N 25; S 753.

Obv. Crude bust right, trident in front. Rev. Cross fourchee in inner circle, blundered legend - 'WITMEN MONITA'.
1.25g. GVF - Good Very fine, rev. a little off centre

Very rare early Anglo-Saxon coin in fact the very first issue when they arrived in Britain copying existing Roman coins – Gold but extremely pale so high silver content. The Crondall group comprises twelve English gold (40% - 70% pure) shilling (thrymsa) types represented in the famous Crondall, Hampshire, 1828 hoard of 101 coins (ex Lord Grantley collection and now preserved intact in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford). This 'Witmen' type is named from those with the WITMEN MONITA legend and this is usually seen blundered or in abbreviated forms. The type was almost certainly struck in Kent, possibly at Canterbury.

Anglo-Saxon England, 'Light' gold Thrymsa post Crondall type c. 655 – 675.

Stock code: CM001111
Country: England, Anglo-Saxon
Date/mint mark: c. 655 – 675.
Type Post Crondall, Pada Type
Ref. no: Metcalf 82; N 31; S 773.

Obv. Pada type 'A', bust right wearing double pearl diadem, blundered legend. Rev. Small cross with annulet in each angle, legend NOVI ANVSPFAV interrupted by runes for 'PADA'
1.23g. EF - Extremely Fine, rev. a little off centre

Very attractive example of this post Crondall gold thrymsa one of the first Anglo-Saxon gold coins– very pale gold so predominantly silver ! Very rare in this condition. The word 'Pada' was formerly associated with the name of the King Peada of Mercia (died 656), however this has been rejected on chronological designs. The name is now thought to be that of a moneyer or another otherwise unknown ruler. The prototype for the obverse is late Roman and from the obverse legend, very likely a coin of the emperor Gratian (375-383).

Great Britain, Charles II. Milled Gold Guinea - dated 1679.

Stock code: CM000957
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles II (1660 - 1685)
Denomination/metal: Gold Guinea
Date/mint mark: 1679
Type Fourth Bust
Ref. no: MCE 106; S 3344

Obv. Laureate bust right, 'CAROLVS II SEI GRATIA'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms in cruciform, 'C' cypher in centre, sceptres in angles, 'MAG BRI FR ET HIB REG'.
25mm, 8.24g. AEF - About Extremely Fine, strong bust, rev. a little weak.

In 1663 the ancient process of striking coins was given up for good and the Royal mint became totally mechanised under direction of the Roettier brothers whom Charles had brought back with him from the Continent on the Restitution of the Monarchy in 1660. This guinea is one of the new style milled coins and although there is a little weakness in the centre of the reverse, the portrait of Charles is particularly strong. It is thus attractive and therefore desirable.

Isle of Man, Silver Crown of 1811 - issued by the Douglas Bank. Excessively rare!

Stock code: CM000955
Country: Isle of Man
King (reign): Dove & Co. Bank, Douglas
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown
Date/mint mark: 1811
Type Bank token
Ref. no: D 1; Prid 46; Q 68

Obv. View of Peel castle over the bay from the quayside. Rev. Name of issuer, denomination and date.
35mm, 15.42g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine, bright with brilliant proof-like surfaces.

Excessively rare piece – only known from three or four specimens (one which belonged to Sir George Chetwynd which was auctioned in 1872 by Christies which Davis valued in 1904 as “no exaggeration thirty guineas” !). Probably struck for the partners of the bank when the copper token series was minted in 1811 – possibly as a prospective pattern for further bank issue. The bank was founded on the 27th. November 1811 and was initially situated in Fort Street in Douglas and then for the rest of its existence in Duke street. The partners were William Scarlett Littler, the Rev Robert Littler and James Dove. Some £20 worth of copper and silver tokens were prepared for use but after only three or four weeks some difference regarding policy arose between the partners resulting in James Dove suing Robert Littler who was arrested while trying to leave the island. This arrest was waived on the 3rd. of January 1812 but the banking business ceased to operate after only just over a month's operation!

England, Charles II silver Shilling 1663.

Stock code: CM001105
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles II (1660 - 1685)
Denomination/metal: Silver Shilling
Date/mint mark: 1663
Type First Bust
Ref. no: ESC 1022; S 3371.

Obv. Laurete, draped bust of Charles right, 'CAROLVS II DEI GRATIA'. Rev. Cruciform Royal Arms with entwined 'C's in angles and Garter Cross in centre, 'MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX'.
25mm, 6.02g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine, attractive toning with traces of original lustre, small edge nick on rev. rim.

Very pretty example – attractively toned, with considerable original lustre

Scotland, Splendid gold Rider (100/- Scots) dated 1594.

Stock code: CM000779
Country: Scotland
King (reign): James VI (1567 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, 100
Date/mint mark: 1594
Type Seventh issue.
Ref. no: S 5458

Obv. James, in full armour holding sword and orb, riding a fully caparisoned horse right, 'IACOBVS 6 D G R SCOTORVM'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms, 'SPERO MELIORA' ( I hope hope better things).
28mm, 4.96g. AVF - Almost Very Fine, well struck.

Very splendid Scottish coin, nicknamed the 'rider' this coin was worth 100 shillings Scots This coin was issued just before James became King of England and was brought south by James in 1603 and was made legal tender in England and Wales as 10 shillings. The coinage of James VI is a very large and varied issue – more so than any other Scottish monarch, many new and innovatively designed pieces were introduced during this reign as well as several new denominations. After he inherited the English throne as James I in 1603 the Scottish monetary system was tied to the English system at a rate of 12:1 which was continued until the union of the two crowns as the United Kingdom under Anne in 1707, at which point the Scottish coinage was called in.

Scotland, James VI silver Ten shillings 1582.

Stock code: CM001101
Country: Scotland King (reign): James VI (1567 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Silver Shillings, Ten
Date/mint mark: 1582
Type Fourth Coinage
Ref. no: S 5490.

Obv. Crowned half bust of James left, holding sword in right hand, 'IACOBVS 6 DEI GRATIA REX SCOTORVM'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms dividing 'IR' and denomination 'X S', 'HONOR REGIS IVDICIVM DILIGIT', (The king's power loveth judgement).
31mm, 7.79g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck and nicely toned.

Outstanding ten shillings of this young Scottish king – beautiful detail in facial features and bust. Rare, spectacular with a very good provenances (Dakers, Langford and Hird collections) - thus desirable and much rarer than the larger 30 shillings piece ! King of Scotland from 1567 as a one year old and England (as James I) from 1603. The son of Mary Queen of Scots and her second husband, Lord Darnley, he succeeded to the Scottish throne on the enforced abdication of his mother and assumed power in 1583, and this coin was issued just before his majority when he was only seventeen. James's childhood and adolescence were unhappy, abnormal, and precarious; he had various guardians, whose treatment of him differed widely. His education, although thorough, was weighted with Presbyterian and Calvinist political doctrine, and his character – highly intelligent and sensitive, but also fundamentally shallow, vain, and exhibitionist – reacted violently to this. However, initially he established a strong centralized authority, and in 1589 married Anne of Denmark.

Scotland, Charles I silver twelve-shillings, Intermediate Issue 1637 – 1642.

Stock code: CM001103
Country: Scotland King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Shillings, Twelve
Type Third Coinage, Intermediate Issue
Ref. no: S 5559.

Obv. Crowned bust left, denomination 'XII' behind, CAR D G MAG BRITAN FR ET HIB REX'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms dividing crowned 'CR', small thistle above crown, QVE DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET' (What God hath joined together let no man put asunder).
31mm, 5.81g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck, weight adjustment marks.

Beautifully detailed bust and good example of this 'Intermediate' issue of superior coins issued while Nicholas Briot was working at the Edinburgh Mint. Charles I had sent the French die engraver up to Edinburgh to sort the coinage out in 1635 as 'Master of the Scottish Mint' and a few years later he was joined by his son-in-law John Falconer who eventually succeeded him in 1646. However, this series of coins was engraved either by Briot or Falconer under his father-in-law's direction, in the early years of 1637 – 1642.

Gt. Britain, Anne silver Crown 1713, 'Roses & Plumes'.

Stock code: CM001117
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Anne (1702 - 1714)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown
Date/mint mark: 1713, 'DVODECIMO'.
Type Third Bust, Roses & Plumes
Ref. no: ESC 109; S 3603.

Obv. Draped bust left with hair up, 'ANNA DEI GRATIA'. Rev. Crowned arms of England, Scotland, France and Ireland in cruciform, roses and plumes in angles, 'MAG BRI FR ET HIB REG'.
29.91g. EF - Extremely Fine, good iridescence to toning, just slight weakness on one rose on rev. which corresponds with her shoulder on obv. which took all the metal in the strike

Handsome coin with beautiful even grey toning, just a little weak on the reverse where all the silver has gone into Anne's shoulder rather than the rose on this side. The roses and plumes on the reverse signify that the metal of which these coins were made came from the silver mines in the West of England (rose) and the those in Wales (plumes).

Anglo-Saxon England - Kingdom of East Anglia, Edmund ('the Martyr') silver penny c. 860s.

Stock code: CM001121
Country: England, Medieval
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny

Ref. no: BMC 46; N 459; S 955.

Obv. Cross with upper and two transverse arms crosslet, the latter sloping upwards, 'EADMVND RX AN', (Edmund king of Anglia). Rev. Cross pattee with a pellet in each angle, 'BEORNFE(R)D MO', (Beornferd moneyer).
1.23g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck and nicely patinated.

Very good condition and very rare – especially this type with the strange cross crosslet rather than the simple 'alpha' on the obv. as normally seen. Very little is known of Edmund who was the last king of the independent Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of East Anglia, today's Norfolk and Suffolk. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in A.D. 870: “[the Vikings] went across Mercia into East Anglia, and took winter-quarters at Thetford; and in that year St. Edmund the king fought against them, and the Danish took the victory, and killed the king and conquered all that land…” He may have been slain by the Danes in battle, but by tradition he met his death at an unidentified place known as Haegelisdun, after he refused the Danes' demand that he renounce Christ: the Danes beat him, shot him with arrows and then beheaded him, on the orders of their leaders, Ivar the Boneless and his brother Ubbe Ragnarsson. According to one legend, his head was then thrown into the forest, but was found safe by searchers after following the cries of a wolf that was calling, "Hic, Hic, Hic" – "Here, Here, Here". Commentators have noted how Edmund's death bears resemblance to the fate suffered by St Sebastian, St Denis and St Mary of Egypt. A coinage commemorating Edmund was minted from around the time East Anglia was absorbed by the kingdom of Wessex and a popular cult emerged. In about 986, Abbo de Fleury wrote of his life and martyrdom. The saint's remains were temporarily moved from Bury to London for safekeeping in 1010. His shrine was visited by many kings, including Canute, who was responsible for rebuilding the abbey: the stone church was rebuilt again in 1095. During the Middle Ages, when Edmund was regarded as the patron saint of England, Bury and its magnificent abbey grew wealthy, but during the Dissolution of the Monasteries, his shrine was destroyed. The mediaeval manuscripts and other works of art relating to Edmund that have survived include Abbo's Passio Santi Eadmundi, John Lydgate's 14th century Life, the Wilton Diptych and a number of church wall paintings.

England, Henry VII gold Angel (6s 8d.) struck between 1505 & 1509.

Stock code: CM001119
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Henry VII (1485 - 1509)
Denomination/metal: Gold Angel
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Pheon' 1505 -09.
Type Type V.
Ref. no: S 2187.

Obv. The angel Michael (in armour) spearing fallen dragon-like devil, Pheon mintmark, 'HENRIC DI GRA REX ANGL Z FR'. Large crook shaped abbreviation after king's name. Rev. Medieval ship with Royal Arms on cruciform mast, dividing 'h' and rose. ' PER CRVCE TVA SALVA NOS EXPC RED', (By the cross save us, Oh Christ our Redeemer).
5.09g. AVF - Almost Very fine, some wear but all details clear due to strong strike.

Some wear but otherwise a very well struck coin with strong features– a good example of this angel (tariffing at 6 shillings and 8 pence) issued in the last year or so of this first Tudor king. The angel had been issued for nearly a hundred years but towards the turn of the century the design of St. Michael was changed from a fairly 'elfish' feathered figure to a winged knight in renaissance armour as seen here. The Lancastrian Henry (VII) Tudor married Yorkist Edward IV's daughter thereby bringing together the red and white roses to form the 'Tudor Rose' and thus ending the 'Wars of the Roses' which had devastated England for 50 years.

England, Charles I silver crown issued at he Tower between 1632 and 1633.

Stock code: CM001118
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Harp' (over Rose), 1632 – 33.
Type Tower Mint, Group II, 2nd. Horseman Type 2a.
Ref. no: Cooper X – XIV; N 2192; S 2755.

Obv. King crowned and armoured holding sword on plumed, caparisoned horse left, 'CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT FRA ET HIB REX'. Rev. Oval, garnished Royal Arms on cross fourche, 'CR' above, 'CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO' (I reign under the auspice of Christ).
29.53g. VF - VF, Very fine, attractive old toning, slight weakness below horses back leg which corresponds with bottom of shield on rev.

Very attractively patinated coin with just a small weakly struck area at the bottom of the arms. Otherwise, good overall portrait with all legend visible Also, interesting feature of the mintmark (harp) being clearly seen to be engraved on the previous year's mintmark (rose).

England, Oliver Cromwell silver shilling (proposed !) dated 1658.

Stock code: CM001072
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Oliver Cromwell (Lord Protector) (1653 - 1658)
Denomination/metal: Silver Shilling
Date/mint mark: 1658
Type Proposed Milled Issue.
Ref. no: S 3228.

Obv. Laureate and draped bust left, with die flaw at late stage, legend and toothed border, OLIVAR D GR P ANG SCO HIB & PRO'. Rev. Crowned quartered shield of arms of the Protectorate, date
Above, toothed border 'PAX QVAERITVR BELLO'. (Peace is sought by war)
28mm, 6.08g. UC - Uncirculated, attractive grey toning with a little cabinet friction on highest points.

Superb condition and marvellous patination – would be pristine if not for the very slight cabinet friction on the highest points. Nevertheless, outstanding, desirable and rare. Made from Thomas Simon's coin mills, this series of some of the first machine made coins bearing Oliver Cromwell's portrait were made at the end of Cromwell's life. Authorised in 1656, they were issued in 1657 and 58, they are really patterns and did not generally circulate – however they are interesting in the respect that they indicate that the Lord Protector was 'assuming the purple' and may well have issued coins bearing his portrait with his crowned (!!!) arms had he not died !

England, Elizabeth I gold Pound issued 1594 – 1596. Outstanding example.

Stock code: CM001058
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603)
Denomination/metal: Gold Pound
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Woolpack' – May 1594 – Feb. 1596.
Type Third Issue, Crown Coinage.
Ref. no: Schneider 799; N 2008; S 2534.

Obv. Crowned bust left with long hair and intricate bodice, 'ELIZABETH DG ANG' FRA' ET HI' REGINA'. Rev. Crowned and garnished Royal Arms dividing 'ER', SCVTAM FIDEI PROTERET EAM', (The shield of faith shall protect her).
39mm, 11.22g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine, well and centrally struck

Superb and outstanding example of a rare coin in a condition almost impossible to better. This rare and large gold coin represents in every way 'Elizabeth Gloriana'. The die work is very good resulting in a marvellous and attractive detail to Elizabeth's portrait – the clarity of her features, the intricacy of her bodice and with no wear, all in sharp definition. This is a gem of a coin and a fantastic contemporary portrait of this iconic Tudor queen.

England, Charles I silver hammered Shilling issued between 1636 and 1638.

Stock code: CM001077
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Shilling
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Tun' – 1636 – 38.
Type Tower Mint, Group 'D', Type 3a.
Ref. no: S 2791.

Obv. Crowned, draped bust left, denomination behind, 'CAROLVS D G MA BR FR ET HI REX'. Rev. Oval, garnished Royal Arms, 'CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO', (I reign under the auspice of Christ).
29mm, 6.07g. VF - Very Fine or better – well struck. No weak areas, lightly toned.

Not rare (as Charles shillings go) but beautiful condition – well struck with all details and legend crisp and clear. At this period hammered coin production did not have very good quality control apart from getting the weight right, but in this piece we see a carefully struck coin with complete legend both sides, good facial features, clear Royal Arms. In short a desirable and uncommon piece.

England, Elizabeth I silver 'milled' Halfcrown of 1601

Stock code: CM001068
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown, Half
Date/mint mark: Mintmark '1' – 1601
Type Seventh issue.
Ref. no: N 2013; S 2583.

Obv. Crowned bust left with intricate bodice, 'ELIZABETH D G ANG FRA ET HIBER REGINA'. Rev. Royal Arms on cross fourchee, 'POSVI DEVM ADIVTOREM MEVM', (I have made God my helper)
35mm, 14.9g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine, reverse better.

This coin is well struck and very nicely patinated , especially on the reverse. The die work is very good and with this strong strike has resulted in marvellous and attractive detail to Elizabeth's portrait – the clarity of her features, the intricacy of her bodice and with little wear, all in sharp definition. This is a very good example and a fantastic contemporary portrait of this iconic Tudor queen.

England, Elizabeth I silver One Testern (1600) – proposed for use in East Indies.

Stock code: CM001069
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603)
Denomination/metal: Silver Testern, One
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'O' – 1600 – 01.
Type Portcullis Money
Ref. no: N -; S 2607d.

Obv. Crowned Royal Arms dividing crowned 'ER', 'ELIZABETH D G AN FR ET HI REGINA'. Rev. Crowned Portcullis, 'POSVI DEVM ADIVTOREM MEVM', (I have made God my helper).
24mm, 3.17g. GVF - Good Very Fine, toned, signs of former crease.

Exceptionally rare and well struck exhibiting little wear and signs of a a small crease. Very important historically - the few known are extraordinarily badly struck and this example shows a good clear portcullis with most of the legend visible. This Portcullis money of One Testern (or 1/8th.dollar) was struck at the Tower Mint for the use of the Company of Merchants of London, later to be the East India Company and were taken on their first voyage to the East. They are considered by many to be our first purely colonial issue. They were produced with the intention to compete with the Spanish ""pieces of eight” which was the accepted currency in the East. Like the Spanish coins they were hoping to replace, they were issued in denominations of one, two, four and eight testerns and their purpose was to consolidate Britain's influence in the economic and commercial struggle with other 'would be' colonisers such as the Spanish and Dutch. Unfortunately, the coins were not a success as they were not popular with traders in the East, who were suspicious of these new strange looking coins – preferring the accepted then established Spanish 'coins of trade'. There are only thought to be less than two hundred surviving coins (of all four denoms.) of which many are in museums.

England, Philip & Mary silver Shilling 1554, very good condition !

Stock code: CM001089
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Philip and Mary (1554 - 1558)
Denomination/metal: Silver Shilling
Date/mint mark: 1554
Type Dated, Full Titles
Ref. no: N 1967; S 2500.

Obv. Large crown over busts of Philip and Mary vis a vis, date. 'PHILIP ET MARIA D G R ANG FR NEAP PR HISP'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms of Spain and England. Denomination (XII) by crown, 'POSVIMVS DEVM ADIVTOREM NOSTRVM', (We have made god our helper).
30mm, 5.93g. GVF - Good Very Fine, pretty good strike.

Although it has seen a little wear, this coin is a very good specimen as both portraits of Philip and Mary are well struck up (often one is quite weak) and sharply clear regarding the details of their facial features and dress. Also all the peripheral legend on each side is mostly clear and legible – again difficult to find and with the fact that this piece is also very attractively patinated makes it a very desirable and exceptional. When Queen Mary married Philip II of Spain as consort he became king which meant technically he ruled England as the senior Royal (as a man). For nearly four years Philip was not only king of Spain and Naples but also king of England and with Mary he tried to bring the kingdom back into the Catholic fold - from which Mary's father, Henry VIII had 'wrenched' it. Struck for only two years this coin is not only rare but a tremendously interesting token of the religious struggle which was going on at this time.

England, Elizabeth I large gold Sovereign (30 shillings) issued 1592 – 1593. Attractive example.

Stock code: CM001059
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603)
Denomination/metal: Gold Sovereign
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Tun' – Feb. 1592 – Jun. 1593.
Type Second issue, Second period.
Ref. no: Schneider 783; N 2003 S 2529.

Obv. Elizabeth, crowned and wearing ceremonial robes, seated facing on throne bearing orb and sceptre, portcullis at her feet, 'ELIZABETH D'G' ANG' FRA' ET HIB' REGINA'. Rev. Royal Arms in centre of Tudor rose, 'A DNO FACTV' EST ISTVDET EST MIRAB' INOCVL' NRS', (This is the Lord's doing and is marvellous in our eyes'.
42mm, 15.32g. GVF - Good Very Fine, a little weak to the right of her chin. Small privy mark (cross) lightly scratched on her right shoulder).

Large, splendid and rare gold Thirty shillings piece of Elizabeth, called a sovereign because it portrays the sovereign in full length. Very good condition although just al little weakly struck at Elizabeth's chin – if it were strong here then the coin would be two to three times this price. Apart from this natural striking weakness it is a very good coin and the detail on the reverse is very crisp and strong.

England, James I gold Unite (20 shillings) issued 1604 – 1605.

Stock code: CM001061
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): James VI (1567 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, Twenty (Unite)
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Lis' – Nov. 1604 – Jun. 1605.
Type Second Issue.

Obv. Crowned king in full armour right holding orb and sceptre, IACOBVS DG MAG BRIT FRANC ET HIB REX'. Rev. Crowned and garnished Royal Arms dividing 'IR', FACIAM EOS IN GENTEM VNAM'. (I will make them into one nation).
37mm, 9.84g. AVF - About Very Fine, well struck but with a little wear.

Although this coin has seen a little wear, because it was strongly stuck all the main features are still visible and it is still a very attractive piece of this first Stuart monarch of England. Called a 'Unite' because of James's wish to 'unite' the nations of England and Scotland – which sentiment he chose to be the reverse legend of his twenty Shillings piece. This is a concept that is particularly relevant today !

England, Charles I silver Crown, struck during Civil War at Truro 1642 – 1643.

Stock code: CM001063
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Rose' – 1642-43.
Type Truro Mint
Ref. no: S 3045.

Obv. King crowned and armoured on horse left, sash flying out, 'CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT FRA ET HI REX'. Rev. Round, garnished Royal Arms, CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO' (I reign under the auspice of Christ).
42mm, 28.82g. VF - Very Fine, upper bust a little weakly struck

These coins are normally quickly and badly struck but this example exhibits very little wear, a full legend with a very well struck reverse. However the upper bust of Charles is a little weak but the detail in the horse is very good. This coin is a better specimen than the plate coin in 'Coins of England'. When the Civil War began in 1642, the Tower mint fell into the hands of Parliament and Charles was forced to open a mints in Royalist held western England at Shrewsbury, Bristol and Oxford Truro and finally Exeter. (1642 -46). In 1643 the king was already minting coins in Truro and on 4 September, after a siege, Exeter surrendered to Prince Maurice and the city remained in Royalist hands till 9 April 1646. On 3 January 1644 Sir Richard Vyvyan received a Royal Commission to set up a mint in Exeter;