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England - Charles I, Gold Triple Unite, minted Oxford during the Civil War, 1642

Stock code: CM000481X
£98,500
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Gold Pounds, Three (Triple Unite)
Date/mint mark: 1642
Type Oxford Mint, 'Declaration'
Ref. no: Schneider 286; N 2381; S 2724

Obv. Half length tall figure of Charles to left, wearing crown and full armour holding a sword and an olive branch. Plumes behind, 'CAROLVS DG MAG BRIT FRAN ET HI REX'. Rev. Declaration in a three line scroll, 'RELIG PROT / LEG ANG / LIBER PAR' (Protestant Religion, Laws of England, Liberty of Parliament), three plumes above with mark of value, date below; around 'EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI' (Let God arise and let the enemy be scattered).
46mm, 27g. GVF - Good Very Fine, strongly struck

TheTripleUnite, valued atsixty shillings, 60/-or three pounds, was the highestEnglishdenomination to be produced. It was struck at the Oxford Mint set up during the first English Civil War of 1642-6 and issued between January and March of 1642 at the hurriedly set up mint at New Inn Hall in Oxford. This huge coin was issued, at least in part, for use as gifts to those whom the King wished to 'cement' to his side in the Civil War. Thus he obverse design for the coin features an armoured bust of Charles I, with broadsword raised, and yet in visual dichotomy he bears an olive branch clutched over his heart. Charles was visually appealing to either nature of the benefactor he was seeking to entice. The bust on this coin is very hawkish which is the earliest type, later he had it changed to a more benevolent softer style. On the reverse he put his famous declaration – uttered in 1642 when he swore to to uphold the Protestant Religion, the laws of England and the freedom of Parliament. Very rare and spectacular coin!

Great Britain - 1726 AD Guinea - (AEF) Milled, Gold

Stock code: CM000185X
£4,100
Country: Great Britain
King (reign): George I (1714 - 1723)
Denomination/metal: Gold Guinea
Type: Milled
Ref. no: S3635

Obv. Laureate bust of king right. Rev. Arms of Britain France, Ireland and Hanover in cruciform, garter in centre, sceptres in angles.
25mm, 8.35g. AEF - About Extremely Fine – residual lustre

Scarce and good condition guinea

Great Britain - 1739 AD Guineas, Two - (AEF) Milled, Gold

Stock code: CM000323X
£3,900
Country: Great Britain
King (reign): George II (1723 - 1760)
Denomination/metal: Gold Guineas, Two
Type: Milled Intermediate, laureate head
Ref. no: Schneider 576; S 3668

Obv. Laureate, draped bust left. Rev. Crowned, garnished Royal Arms – Great Britain, France, Ireland and Hanover.
32mm, 16.71g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine, reverse better. Lustre in protected areas of the field, clean coin

Handsome large gold coin of George II, little wear making it a pleasing and desirable coin. George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain and was born and brought up in Northern Germany. As king from 1727, George exercised little control over British domestic policy, which was largely controlled by Great Britain's parliament. As elector, he spent 12 summers in Hanover, where he had more direct control over government policy. He had a difficult relationship with his eldest son, Frederick , who supported the parliamentary opposition. During the War of the Austrian Succession, George participated at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743, and thus became the last British monarch to lead an army into battle. In 1745, supporters of the Stuart and Catholic claimant to the British throne failed to depose George in the last of the Jacobite rebellions. Frederick died unexpectedly in 1751, leaving George's grandson, George III , as heir apparent and ultimately king.

Bank of England, ONE MILLION POUND banknote 1948 - One of only two 'million pound' notes in existence!

Stock code: B000001X
£125,000
Country: Great Britain
King (reign): George VI - (1936 - 1952)
Denomination/metal: Banknote Pounds, One Million
Date/mint mark: Bank of England

0mm, 0g. VF - Small hole cancellation through signature. Light creases and some handling otherwise good very fine to about extremely fine and extremely rare.

One Million Pounds, 30 August 1948, D 000007, on Bank of England watermarked paper, PAYABLE ON DEMAND, signature of E.E. Bridges, Secretary to the Treasury, bottom right, stamped ‘CANCELLED, 6 OCT. 1948, BANK OF ENGLAND’. Monies received through the Marshall Aid plan after World War II, were subject to strict accountability. The Treasury had to borrow from the Bank of England on a short term basis and to help with the book keeping requested the printing of high value notes. The total order sent to The Bank of England printing works was for Three Hundred Million Pounds in varying denominations, starting from Twenty Five Thousand Pounds. It is believed that the entire issue was subsequently destroyed with the exception of numbers Seven and Eight for One Million Pounds which were presented to the British and American Treasury Secretaries respectively.

England, gold Double-Crown of James I, struck between 1606 & 1607

Stock code: CM000658
£1,850
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): James I (1603 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Crown, Double
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Escallop' – 1606 -07.
Type Second Coinage, Fourth bust.
Ref. no: Schneider 33; N 2087; S 2622.

Obv. Crowned, cuirassed bust of king right , 'IACOBVS D G MAG BRIT FRAN ET HIB REX'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms dividing 'IR', 'HENRICVS ROSAS REGNA IACOBVS', (Henry [united] the roses, James the kingdoms).
29mm, 4.92g. AEF - Very Fine - or better

Issued from 1605 - 11, this denomination with the fourth bust is an uncommon coin and although this piece has seen a little wear all the main features are clearly visible with no weak areas in the legend on both sides. The coinage of James I is a very large and varied issue – more so than any other monarch, many new and innovatively designed pieces were introduced during this reign as well as several new denominations. It is interesting to note the reverse legend of this coin - having become king James I of England, James VI of Scotland was very keen to unite the two kingdoms – a concept which is still current and just as controversial today !

England, James I gold Unite (20 shillings) issued 1604 – 1605.

Stock code: CM001061
£3,250
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): James VI (1567 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, Twenty (Unite)
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Lis' – Nov. 1604 – Jun. 1605.
Type Second Issue.

Obv. Crowned king in full armour right holding orb and sceptre, IACOBVS DG MAG BRIT FRANC ET HIB REX'. Rev. Crowned and garnished Royal Arms dividing 'IR', FACIAM EOS IN GENTEM VNAM'. (I will make them into one nation).
37mm, 9.84g. AVF - About Very Fine, well struck but with a little wear.

Although this coin has seen a little wear, because it was strongly stuck all the main features are still visible and it is still a very attractive piece of this first Stuart monarch of England. Called a 'Unite' because of James's wish to 'unite' the nations of England and Scotland – which sentiment he chose to be the reverse legend of his twenty Shillings piece. This is a concept that is particularly relevant today !

England, Elizabeth I silver 'milled' Halfcrown of 1601

Stock code: CM001068
£6,300
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown, Half
Date/mint mark: Mintmark '1' – 1601
Type Seventh issue.
Ref. no: N 2013; S 2583.

Obv. Crowned bust left with intricate bodice, 'ELIZABETH D G ANG FRA ET HIBER REGINA'. Rev. Royal Arms on cross fourchee, 'POSVI DEVM ADIVTOREM MEVM', (I have made God my helper)
35mm, 14.9g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine, reverse better.

This coin is well struck and very nicely patinated , especially on the reverse. The die work is very good and with this strong strike has resulted in marvellous and attractive detail to Elizabeth's portrait – the clarity of her features, the intricacy of her bodice and with little wear, all in sharp definition. This is a very good example and a fantastic contemporary portrait of this iconic Tudor queen.

England, Elizabeth I large gold Sovereign (30 shillings) issued 1592 – 1593. Attractive example.

Stock code: CM001059
£16,750
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603)
Denomination/metal: Gold Sovereign
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Tun' – Feb. 1592 – Jun. 1593.
Type Second issue, Second period.
Ref. no: Schneider 783; N 2003 S 2529.

Obv. Elizabeth, crowned and wearing ceremonial robes, seated facing on throne bearing orb and sceptre, portcullis at her feet, 'ELIZABETH D'G' ANG' FRA' ET HIB' REGINA'. Rev. Royal Arms in centre of Tudor rose, 'A DNO FACTV' EST ISTVDET EST MIRAB' INOCVL' NRS', (This is the Lord's doing and is marvellous in our eyes'.
42mm, 15.32g. GVF - Good Very Fine, a little weak to the right of her chin. Small privy mark (cross) lightly scratched on her right shoulder).

Large, splendid and rare gold Thirty shillings piece of Elizabeth, called a sovereign because it portrays the sovereign in full length. Very good condition although just al little weakly struck at Elizabeth's chin – if it were strong here then the coin would be two to three times this price. Apart from this natural striking weakness it is a very good coin and the detail on the reverse is very crisp and strong.

England, Charles I silver Crown, struck during Civil War at Truro 1642 – 1643.

Stock code: CM001063
£1,500
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Rose' – 1642-43.
Type Truro Mint
Ref. no: S 3045.

Obv. King crowned and armoured on horse left, sash flying out, 'CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT FRA ET HI REX'. Rev. Round, garnished Royal Arms, CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO' (I reign under the auspice of Christ).
42mm, 28.82g. VF - Very Fine, upper bust a little weakly struck

These coins are normally quickly and badly struck but this example exhibits very little wear, a full legend with a very well struck reverse. However the upper bust of Charles is a little weak but the detail in the horse is very good. This coin is a better specimen than the plate coin in 'Coins of England'. When the Civil War began in 1642, the Tower mint fell into the hands of Parliament and Charles was forced to open a mints in Royalist held western England at Shrewsbury, Bristol and Oxford Truro and finally Exeter. (1642 -46). In 1643 the king was already minting coins in Truro and on 4 September, after a siege, Exeter surrendered to Prince Maurice and the city remained in Royalist hands till 9 April 1646. On 3 January 1644 Sir Richard Vyvyan received a Royal Commission to set up a mint in Exeter;

Scotland, Charles I silver twelve-shillings, Intermediate Issue 1637 – 1642.

Stock code: CM001103
£375
Country: Scotland King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Shillings, Twelve
Type Third Coinage, Intermediate Issue
Ref. no: S 5559.

Obv. Crowned bust left, denomination 'XII' behind, CAR D G MAG BRITAN FR ET HIB REX'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms dividing crowned 'CR', small thistle above crown, QVE DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET' (What God hath joined together let no man put asunder).
31mm, 5.81g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck, weight adjustment marks.

Beautifully detailed bust and good example of this 'Intermediate' issue of superior coins issued while Nicholas Briot was working at the Edinburgh Mint. Charles I had sent the French die engraver up to Edinburgh to sort the coinage out in 1635 as 'Master of the Scottish Mint' and a few years later he was joined by his son-in-law John Falconer who eventually succeeded him in 1646. However, this series of coins was engraved either by Briot or Falconer under his father-in-law's direction, in the early years of 1637 – 1642.

England, Henry VIII. Gold Angel, Second Coinage, struck between 1526 – 1544.

Stock code: CM001212
£5,600
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Henry VIII (1509 - 1547)
Denomination/metal: Gold Angel
Date/mint mark: mm. lis, 1526 – 1544
Type Second coinage.
Ref. no: SCBI Schneider 574; N 1783; S 2268.

Obv. The angel St. Michael spearing fallen dragon like devil, 'HENRIC VIII DI GRA REX AGL Z FR'. Rev. Ancient ship with central mast a cross, upon which is the Royal Arms, 'h' and rose either side. 'PER CRVCE TVA SALVA NOS XPE REDE', (By the cross save us, Oh Christ our Redeemer).
17mm, 5.11g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck with clear details.

Very rare second issue when little gold was issued because the economy was in such a bad state. He increased by 10% the gold in these coins as an attempt to prevent the drain of gold to the Continent and this coin now became worth 7s 6d (formerly 6s. 8d.). It is also very good condition making it a very desirable coin. Henry VIII was the second monarch of the House of Tudor, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. Henry's struggles with Rome led to the separation of the Church of England from papal authority, the Dissolution of Monasteries and establishing himself as the Supreme Head of the church of England Yet he remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings, even after his excommunication from the Catholic Church. Henry oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 - 42. He ruled with absolute power and his desire to provide England with a male heir - which stemmed partly from personal vanity and partly because he believed a daughter, would be unable to consolidate the Tudor dynasty and the fragile peace that existed following the Wars of the Roses - led to the two things that Henry is remembered for: his six marriages, and the English reformation, which made England a mostly Protestant nation. In later life he became morbidly obese and his health suffered; his public image is frequently depicted as one of a lustful, egotistical, harsh, and insecure king.

England, Edward VI. Silver Crown, dated 1551.

Stock code: CM001213
£4,250
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Edward VI (1547 - 1553)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown
Date/mint mark: 1551
Type Third Period, Fine issue.
Ref. no: Lingford dies F-8; N 1933; S 2478.

Obv. Crowned and fully armoured king, holding sword in right hand on fully caparisoned horse galloping right, EDWARD VI D' G' AGL' FRA' Z HIBER' REX'. Rev. Royal Arms on cross fourchee, 'POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE' MEVM', (I have made God my helper).
43mm, 30.41g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck and nicely patinated.

Very well struck so all main features of king and horse are clearly discernible. Also beautifully patinated in a blue-grey -- very attractive and rare coin. This coin is particularly interesting in that it claims a first - it is the first time an English silver coin bears the date in Arabic numerals! The coin is rare and as a type was only issued for three years – 1551 (this coin), 52 and 53.

England, Charles I. Superb Silver Halfcrown, struck at Bristol in 1644.

Stock code: CM001214
£775
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown, Half
Date/mint mark: 1644
Type Declaration issues, Bristol mint.
Ref. no: Bull 644/5; Morr E-6; SCBI Brooker 987; N 2491; S 3009.

Obv. Charles, crowned and in full armour with sword in right hand, riding left, below a 'BR' monogram, 'CAROLVS DG MAG BRI FR ET HIB REX'. Rev. Three plumes over ' 'REL. PROT. LE. AN. LI. PA.' T(he Religion of the Protestants, The Laws of England the Liberty of Parliament), 'BR' monogram below; and around 'EXVRGAT: DEUS: DISSIPENTVR: INIMICI', (Let God arise and his enemies be scattered).
35mm, 1.45g. GVF - Good Very fine, strongly struck with clear portrait, compression crack at six o' clock.

Outstanding example giving more detail than ever is normally seen in these provincial mint issues. Very rare to find so strongly struck – giving a fantastically sharp image of the king on horseback. These coins were struck in makeshift conditions – quickly and carelessly to get coin out to pay the troops – only the weight was important. This is a superb specimen in that it is strongly and centrally struck and also has a beautiful good lustre to it and is one of the best portraits seen. When the Civil War began in 1642, the Tower mint fell into the hands of Parliament and Charles was forced to open a mints in Royalist held western England at Shrewsbury, Oxford and in this case Bristol (1642-1646). In September 1642 he made his famous 'Declaration' promising to uphold the Protestant Religion, the Laws of England and the Liberty of Parliament. This declaration in Latin is displayed on these western mint coins giving them the name of Declaration pieces.

England, Charles I gold Unite -'Negro's Head' mintmark -1626 – 1627.

Stock code: CM001242
£2,750
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, Twenty (Unite)
Date/mint mark: mm. negro's Head; 1626 – 1627
Type Tower mint, Group B, Class 1a.
Ref. no: JGB 32/33; N 2148; S 2687.

Obv. Crowned, draped bust left, denomination 'XX' behind, 'CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX'. Rev. Crowned, garnished square-topped shield, 'FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA', (Through concord kingdoms flourish).
33mm, 8.99g. GVF - Good very Fine, bold strike with very clear obv. Mintmark

This coin is well struck and although it exhibits some wear, all the main features are clear. It carries the 'Negro's Head' mintmark which is very scarce making the coin desirable and ultimately rare in this grade. It has a particularly interesting early portrait of Charles in a Tudor/Jacobean style ruff which was shortly to go out of fashion in favour of the lace collar with which we normally associate the 'Royalists'. Handsome piece.

Celtic Britain, Regni & Atrebates tribe gold quarter Stater issued c50-40 BC

Stock code: CM001243
£850
Country: England, Celtic
King (reign): Unknown Anglo-Saxon
Denomination/metal: Gold Unit, Quarter
Date/mint mark: c50 – 40 BC
Type Uninscribed, Selsey Dahlia type.
Ref. no: ABC 503; vA 22o/221; BMC 478-484; S 48.

Obv. Very stylised laureate head right. Rev. Triple tailed horse right, floral device (Dahlia shaped) above, wheel below. Pellet in annulets around.
13mm, 1.48g. EF - Extremely Fine and well struck.

Superb condition coin, very attractive and rare thus. The Regni and Atrebates tribes covered the area of today's Surrey, Sussex, Berkshire and eastern parts of Hampshire, We know little about the Regni other than they didn't really emerge in the historic record until Roman times. The Atrebates were the dominant tribe and the Regni may have been simply a sub-group of them. This coin is uninscribed so we do not know who specifically issued it. However, it may have been Commios who it is thought turned against Julius Caesar in the Gallic war and fled with his troops to their cousins Britain in about 50BC. These type of coins do have a Continental Europe style to them and are also known as british Remic types.

England, William II (Rufus) silver penny struck Northampton c1095 – 1098.

Stock code: CM001192
£3,800
Country: England, Orange
King (reign): William II (1694 - 1702)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Date/mint mark: 1095 - 1098
Type Type IV, Cross Pattee & Fleury Type. Moneyer – Saewine at Northampton
Ref. no: BMC -; N855; S1261.

Obv. Crowned facing bust holding sceptre to left, 'WILLEM RE'. Rev. Cross Pattee and Fleury, '+SAEPI ON HITIN', (Saewine at Northampton).
22mm, 1.3g. EF - Extremely Fine, some areas of weakness but on a large flan.

Extremely rare coin (mint) and in particularly good condition with a very good portrait of the king – plus struck on a large flan. Few coin types have been ascribed to William's short twelve year reign. He was killed in the new Forest by an arrow in the chest – probably an hunting accident but assassination is by no means out of the question. Although William was an effective soldier, he was a ruthless ruler and, it seems, was little liked by those he governed: according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, he was "hated by almost all his people and abhorrent to God." Chroniclers tended to take a dim view of William's reign, arguably on account of his long and difficult struggles with the Church: these chroniclers were themselves generally clerics, and so might be expected to report him somewhat negatively. The particulars of the king's relationship with the people of England are not credibly documented. Contemporaries of William, as well as those writing after his death, roundly denounced him for presiding over what these dissenters considered to be a dissolute court. In keeping with tradition of Norman leaders, William scorned his English subjects and English culture.

England, Charles I silver Shilling struck in 1625, the first year of his reign.

Stock code: CM001195
£550
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Shilling
Date/mint mark: mm. lis, 1625
Type Tower Mint under king, Group 'A', First bust, Type '1'.
Ref. no: S 2781

Obv. Bust of king left with high double crown wearing coronation robes with large ruff. Denomination 'XI' behind head, 'CAROLVS : D' : G' : MAG' : BRIT' : FRA' : ET : HIB' : REX'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms, square topped and garnished on cross fourchee, 'CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO', (I reign under the auspices of Christ).
31mm, 5.91g. AVF - About Very Fine, well struck.

Although this coin has seen a little wear, it is well struck and all the main details are clear, especially the portrait. This coin was issued in the first year of Charles's reign, 1625, and he is featured on this coin in his coronation robes. It is interesting to note his ornate ruff, (a style of Spanish origin that was about to go out of fashion and flat lace collars would come in) and his ermine cloak collar and order, part of the ceremonial robes.

England, Commonwealth. Silver Crown, 1656. Large 6 over small 6 over 4. Outstanding condition!

Stock code: CM001237
£10,250
Country: England, Commonwealth
King (reign): Commonwealth (1649 - 1660)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown
Date/mint mark: 1656
Type '6' over small '6' over '4'.
Ref. no: ESC 9a; N 2721; S 3214

Obv. English shield (Cross of St. George) within laurel and palm wreath, 'THE COMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND' outer beaded circle surrounding both sides. Rev. English and Irish shield, value 'V' with stops above within beaded circle, date above, 'GOD WITH VS'.
44mm, 29.8g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine – as struck with attractive toning.

Outstanding condition piece – 'as struck' with attractive grey toning with traces of golden iridescence Very rare in such good condition and rare over-date. Also very interesting – for the first time we see the legends in English rather than Latin and also for the first time no monarch's head! This was only going to last some eight more years until the 'Restitution' and the restoration of the old style – Latin and Kings.

Ireland, George III. PROOF - Silver Six Shillings Bank token, 1804, struck over a Spanish 'Piece-of-Eight'.

Stock code: CM001239
£1,675
Country: England, Hanoverian
King (reign): George III (1760 - 1820)
Denomination/metal: Silver Bank Token
Date/mint mark: 1804
Type PROOF, Bank of Ireland Dollar issue.
Ref. no: S 6615

Obv. Laureate, draped bust left, 'GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX'. Rev. Hibernia seated left holding harp and palm branch, 'BANK IF IRELAND TOKEN SIX SHILLINGS DOLLAR'.
42mm, 26.99g. UC - Proof Uncirculated, mirror fields with gold and blue iridescence to toning

Bank of England dollars were five shilling coins issued by the Bank of England struck over Spanish American Pieces of Eight. The Royal Mint was not striking enough silver coins which resulted in the circulation of Pieces of Eight which were countermarked with a 'hallmark' to validate them. This was an unsatisfactory process so the Bank of England commissioned Matthew Boulton at his Soho Mint in Birmingham to produce a die that could re-strike the Pieces of Eight into recognisable British coins. This was also done for the Bank of Ireland, such as this piece, except that the denomination was six, rather than five shillings and using Kuchler's design this 'proof' 6/- bank token was issued in Ireland where there was a dire need for silver coin. No large sized silver was struck in George III's reign until 56 years into his reign – and these countermarked pieces of eight and over-struck Bank 'dollars' were all that there was! One can just make out details of the Piece-of-Eight undertype by looking at the upper part of the obverse around the 'III' in the legend.

Great Britain, George III. Silver Five Shillings Bank token, 1804 struck over a Spanish 'Piece-of-Eight'.

Stock code: CM001240
£1,125
Country: England, Hanoverian
King (reign): George III (1760 - 1820)
Denomination/metal: Silver Bank Token
Date/mint mark: 1804
Type Bank of England Dollar issue.
Ref. no: S 3768

Obv. Laureate, draped bust left, 'GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX'. Rev. Britannia seated left holding shield and olive branch, 'BANK OF ENGLAND' and within a mural crowned band 'FIVE SHILLINGS, DOLLAR'.
41mm, 26.69g. UC - Uncirculated, attractive toned lustre

Bank of England dollars were five shilling coins issued by the Bank of England struck over Spanish American Pieces of Eight. The Royal Mint was not striking enough silver coins which resulted in the circulation of Pieces of Eight Reales, from Spanish America, which were countermarked with a 'hallmark' to validate them. This was an unsatisfactory process so the Bank of England commissioned Matthew Boulton at his Soho Mint in Birmingham to produce a die that could re-strike the Pieces of Eight into recognisable British coins. This was done using Kuchler's design (his initials on bust) and this 5/- bank token, also known as a 'dollar', was issued as there was a dire need for silver coin. No large sized silver was struck in George III's reign until 56 years into his reign – and these countermarked pieces of eight and over-struck Bank 'dollars' were all that there was ! One can just make out details of the Piece-of-Eight undertype by looking at the lower part of the obverse, below the bust, close to the edge.

England, Edward III gold Half-Noble, London, Treaty period 1361 - 1399

Stock code: CM001245
£2,800
Country: England, Medieval
King (reign): Edward III (1327 - 1377)
Denomination/metal: Gold Noble, Half
Date/mint mark: 1361 – 1399
Type London Mint, Treaty period.
Ref. no: Schneider 88; N 1239; S 1507.

Obv. Crowned king in antique ship holding shield of Royal Arms and sword, annulet before name, 'EDWARD DEI G REX ANGLI DNS HYB Z AQT'. Rev. Cross fleuree with 'E' in centre and crowned lions passant guardant in angles, trefoils in spandrels, 'DOMINE ME IN FVRORE TVO ARGVAS ME' (O Lord rebuke me not in thy anger).
26mm, 3.86g. GVF - Good Very Fine, minor graze on forcastle

Very good example of this pretty little medieval gold coin. It is well struck on a particularly large flan making not only all the legend visible but also the details and facial features of the king particularly sharp. It is struck from rusty obv. dies which results in the field being a little 'pock-marked'. There is an interesting aspect to this coin for unlike most other English coins of the period, Edward has dropped his claim to France in the obverse legend. This is because after negotiations with France for peace which led to the Treaty of Bretigni in 1360, and anxious to keep the negotiated trading going between the two countries, Edward dropped his claim lest it upset the French. However, after ten years, in 1370. he resumed his claim - and France is proclaimed as an English possession on subsequent English coins for more than three centuries to come!

English Colonial America. Silver 'Oak tree' Shilling, dated 1652. Struck for Massachusetts in the 1660s.

Stock code: CM001216
£5,150
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles II (1660 - 1685)
Denomination/metal: Silver Shilling
Date/mint mark: (1652) generally issued in 1660s
Type 'IN' at left variety
Ref. no: Noe 9; Breen 19; Whitman 500.

Obv. Oak tree within pellet ring, 'MASATHUSETS IN'. Rev. Date over denomination 'XII', ' NEW ENGLAND AN DOM 1652'.
25mm, 4.29g. VF - Very Fine, darkly tone with minor edge marks.

Very good example of this early and very rare American Colonial coin. Beautiful lustrous grey patination, well struck and nicely centred - a particularly good early American coin! As early as 1650, the colony of Massachusetts Bay was a commercial success. But an inadequate supply of money made trading difficult. England was not inclined to send gold and silver coins to the colonies, for she too were in short supply. Taking matters into their own hands, Boston authorities allowed two settlers, John Hull and his assistant Robert Sanderson, to set up a mint in the capital, Boston in 1652. The two were soon striking silver coinage - shillings, sixpences, and threepences. Nearly all of the new coins bore the same date: 1652. It is thought that the device, an oak-tree (issues also have pine-trees), may symbolize one of the Bay Colony's prime exports, oak for furniture and house building, pine trees for ships' masts. Massachusetts coinage not only circulated within that colony, but was generally accepted throughout the Northeast of America, becoming a monetary standard in its own right. The majority of the coins were actually struck a few years after the date they bear (up to the 1670s) which poses the question,' why the 1652 date'? Some believe that it was intended to commemorate the founding of the Massachusetts mint, which did occur in 1652. Others believe the choice was a reflection of larger political events. Coinage was a prerogative of the King and in theory, these colonists had no right to strike their own coins, no matter how great their need. However, in 1652, there was no king - King Charles I had been beheaded three years previously, and England was a republic. The people in Massachusetts may have cleverly decided to put that date on their coinage so that they could deny any illegality if, as did happen, there were a re-establishment of the monarchy! There is also some thought that the Crown might have been more likely to look kindly on a coinage with an oak-tree on it – after all Charles II, who was on the English throne when these coins were issued, had escaped Cromwell’s troops by hiding up an oak-tree!!!

English Colonial America, Silver 'Pine tree' Sixpence. Dated 1652, struck for Massachusetts in the 1660s.

Stock code: CM001217
£6,150
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles II (1660 - 1685)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny, Six (Sixpence)
Date/mint mark: (1652) generally issued in 1660s
Type Pellets at trunk variety
Ref. no: Noe 33; Breen 48; Whitman 670.

Obv. Pine tree within pellet ring, 'MASATHUSETS IN'. Rev. Date over denomination 'VI', 'NEW ENGLAND AN DOM 1652'.
19mm, 2.11g. GVF - Good Very Fine, dark toning, obverse struck a little off centre.

Superb example of this early and very rare American Colonial coin. Beautiful lustrous grey patination, well struck although the obv. Is a little off centre – particularly good example and difficult to better! As early as 1650, the colony of Massachusetts Bay was a commercial success. But an inadequate supply of money made trading difficult. England was not inclined to send gold and silver coins to the colonies, for she too were in short supply. Taking matters into their own hands, Boston authorities allowed two settlers, John Hull and his assistant Robert Sanderson, to set up a mint in the capital, Boston in 1652. The two were soon striking silver coinage - shillings, sixpences, and threepences. Nearly all of the new coins bore the same date: 1652. It is thought that the device, the pine tree, may symbolize one of the Bay Colony's prime exports, pine trees for ships' masts. Massachusetts coinage not only circulated within that colony, but was generally accepted throughout the Northeast of America, becoming a monetary standard in its own right. The majority of the coins were actually struck a few years after the date they bear (up to the 1670s) which poses the question,' why the 1652 date'? Some believe that it was intended to commemorate the founding of the Massachusetts mint, which did occur in 1652. Others believe the choice was a reflection of larger political events. Coinage was a prerogative of the King and in theory, these colonists had no right to strike their own coins, no matter how great their need. However, in 1652, there was no king - King Charles I had been beheaded three years previously, and England was a republic. The people in Massachusetts may have cleverly decided to put that date on their coinage so that they could deny any illegality if, as did happen, there were a re-establishment of the monarchy!

England, Charles I. Gold Triple Unite, struck at Oxford 1642.

Stock code: CM001219
£70,000
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Gold Unite, Triple
Date/mint mark: 1642
Type Declaration issue, Oxford Mint.
Ref. no: Beresford Jones dies III/S2; Schneider 286; Brooker 832; N 2381; S 2724.

Obv. Crowned taller half-length armoured figure left, holding sword midway in field and long olive branch in left hand not touching upper shoulder, no scarf, Oxford plume to right, 'CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT FRAN ET HI REX'. Rev. Declaration inscription in three lines on a wavy scroll, 'RELIG PROT / LEG ANG / LIBER PAR' (Protestant Religion, Laws of England, Freedom of Parliament), three Oxford Plumes and value 'III' above, date below. 'EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI' (Let God arise and His enemies be scattered).
45mm, 26.92g. GVF - Good very Fine, well struck with a crisp bust, light handling marks.

The Triple Unite, valued at sixty shillings, or three pounds, was the highest English hammered denomination to be produced. It was struck at the Oxford Mint set up during the first English Civil War of 1642-6 and issued between January and March of 1643 (although dated 1642 ie in the old calender) at the hurriedly set up mint at New Inn Hall in Oxford. This huge coin was issued, at least in part, for use as gifts to those whom the King wished to 'cement' to his side in the Civil War. Thus the obverse design for the coin features an armoured bust of Charles I, with broadsword raised, and yet in visual dichotomy he bears an olive branch over his heart. Charles was visually appealing to either nature of the benefactor he was seeking to entice. The first bust on these coins was very hawkish (as on this example) and next year he had it changed to a more benevolent and softer style. On the reverse he put his famous declaration – uttered at Wellington in September 1642 when he swore to to uphold the Protestant Religion, the laws of England and the freedom of Parliament. A very rare (about two hundred are thought top be in existence) and spectacular coin! In January 1642 the 'Long Parliament had seized power in London and Charles was forced to move north. He reached Nottingham by late August but then turned west to Oxford which he reached in October and set up Court and prepared for war. On the 26th of October the Civil War commenced with the battle of Edgehill and then followed the famous battles and sieges of Naseby, Newark and Oxford. Peace negotiations in Spring 1646 came to nought the war continued into a second phase when the Scots invaded in 1648. During this time it was the King's sole right and prerogative to strike coins and to support the 'Royal Cause' supporters' plate, flatware, jewellery and any precious metal was donated to the king to turn into coin to finance the Royalist effort. Coins were struck at Oxford after the mint was hurriedly set up by Thomas Bushell in January 1643 to pay for men, arms, rent, supplies etc. for the war effort but these large gold coins, the ultimate image of Royal Power, were primarily used to procure allegiance. They were never intended to be saved and most were melted down at the end of the war to be turned into current coin – when the concept of 'kingship' had changed forever. A few survived and this rare and magnificent coin, the largest British hammered gold coin, is truly emblematic of this troubled age, the last king of England to rule by divine right.

England, Charles I silver Halfcrown struck 1635 – 1636.

Stock code: CM001241
£675
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown, Half
Date/mint mark: mm. crown, 1635-1636
Type Tower Mint, Group III, Third Horseman, Type 3a1.
Ref. no: N 2209; S 2773

Obv. Charles, crowned and in full armour, carrying sword in right arm, on horse walking left, 'CAROLVS D G MAG BRI FR ET HI REX'. Rev. Oval garnished Royal Arms, CHRISTO REGNO AVSPICE', (I reign under the auspice of Christ).
37mm, 14.73g. GVF - Good Very Fine, strongly struck with attractive tonng

Very handsome coin – not particularly rare but a well struck and clear horseman with clear features of king's face. Also very handsomely toned - a blue/grey colour with bluish iridescence to toning.

Anglo-Saxon England, Eadred. Silver Penny, 946 – 955. Struck by the moneyer Wane.

Stock code: CM001209
£1,175
Country: England, Anglo-Saxon
King (reign): Eadred, 946 – 955
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Date/mint mark: 946 – 955
Type Two Line type.
Ref. no: CTCE -; N 706; S 1113.

Obv. Small Cross pattee, 'EADRED REX'. Rev. Three crosses patee between 'PANE MONI' (money of Wane), trefoil of pellets above and below,
22mm, 1.15g. AEF - About Extremely Fine, bright and well struck.

Very well struck coin in excellent condition. Rare! We do not know in which town the moneyer Wane was working. Eadred king of the English from 946 to 955 brought Northumbria permanently under English rule. He was the son of the West Saxon king Edward the Elder (ruled 899–924) and was the half brother of King Athelstan (ruled 924–939), and the brother of King Edmund I (ruled 939–946). Upon Eadred’s accession to power, the Danish Northumbrians acknowledged his overlordship, but they soon proclaimed as their king Erik Bloodaxe, son of the Norwegian ruler Harald I Fairhair. In revenge Eadred ravaged all of Northumbria (948). The Northumbrians submitted to him, but a year later in 949 they accepted another Norse king from Ireland, Olaf Sihtricson, as their ruler. They overthrew Olaf in 952 in favour of Erik Bloodaxe, who in turn was expelled and killed in 954. The Northumbrians then resumed their allegiance to Eadred. Eadred was a close friend of Dunstan, abbot of Glastonbury (later archbishop of Canterbury), and a supporter of the monastic revival inspired by Dunstan.

Anglo-Saxon England, Aethelstan 'King of all Britain'. Silver Penny 827–839. Struck at York by the moneyer Regnald.

Stock code: CM001208
£1,450
Country: England, Anglo-Saxon
King (reign): Æthelstan, 924 – 939
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Date/mint mark: 827 – 839
Type Circumspection Cross Type, with mint.

Obv. Small cross pattee with small crescent and five pellets above, 'AEDELSTAN REX TO BRIT' (Aethelstan king of all Britain). Rev. Small cross pattee, 'REGNATD MO EORFIC', (Regnald of York).
23mm, 1.43g. GVF - Good very fine, full flan, bright with some light scratches on obv.

A beautiful and important coin, a remarkable object recording a hugely significant moment in English history as it records in its obverse legend that Aetyhelstan was king of 'all (toto) Britain'. The grandson of King Alfred the Great, Aethelstan is considered one of the most important figures in early English history. He was a talented military tactician (responsible for the English victory at the battle of Brunanburh) and a brilliant political and social reformer, laying the foundations for a new, modern England. The battle of Brunanburh is considered, alongside the battle of Hastings, as amongst the most important battles in English history as it prevented England being conquered and overrun by the Scots and Hiberno Norse. In the year 927 Aethelstan conquered the last remaining Viking Kingdom, York and consequently won the submission of the other English Kings. He thus, became the first Anglo Saxon ruler to control the whole of England. These hugely significant achievements were proudly commemorated by a new issue of coinage, known as the 'circumscription cross' type pennies. On these coins Aethelstan proudly declares his new title, Rex Totius Britanniae - "King of all Britain" which can be seen on the coin here.

Anglo-Saxon England Wessex, Aethelwulf. Silver Penny, c855–859. Struck at Canterbury by the moneyer Torhtwulf.

Stock code: CM001207
£6,550
Country: England, Anglo-Saxon
King (reign): Aethelwulf, 839 – 858
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Date/mint mark: c855 – 859
Type Phase IV
Ref. no: C 147; N618; S 1051.

Obv. Diademed bust right, '+ AEDELVVLF REX'. Rev. Large voided cross and in this and in angles 'TORHTVLF MONETA' (Money of Torhtwulf).
22mm, 1.24g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine, well struck and nicely patinated.

Superb and exceptional example of this Anglo-saxon coin – full, round, well struck and handsomely toned with an outstanding portrait. Very rare as such! Aethelwulf succeeded his father, Ecgberht (802-839) as King of Wessex in 839. After conquering the kingdom of Kent for Wessex in 825 he was made sub-king of Kent under his father. On the death of his father Aethelwulf become king of Wessex and made his own son, Aethelstan the sub-king of Kent marking him out for the succession. Aethelwulf has been credited with laying the foundation for the later success of Wessex under his son Alfred the Great (871-899). He was more successful than many previous Saxon kings in his dealings with the Danish invaders. Aethelwulf was an intensely religious man, he sent his son Alfred to Rome when he was four years old and went out himself the following year. While away his son Aethelstan his appointed heir died and another of his sons, Aethelbald, plotted to oppose Aethelwulf's resumption of power. In the ensuing civil war Aethelwulf overcame the attempted coup and eventually was succeeded by another of his sons, Aethelberht (858-865/6). His other younger sons, Aethelred and Alfred also became Kings of Wessex in time.

Danish England, Kingdom of East Anglia - Saint Edmund 'The Martyr'. Silver 'Memorial' Penny, c900.

Stock code: CM001206
£675
Country: England, Viking
King (reign): 'Saint Edmund' Memorial, c.885 - 915
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Date/mint mark: c885 – 900
Type Memorial Coinage
Ref. no: N 483; S 960.

Obv. A' in circle, trefoil of pellets either side, ' SCE ADMVND RE', (saint Edmund king). Rev. Large cross pattee, 'DAIEMOND MOTA' (Money of Dagemund.).
19mm, 1.28g. GVF - Good Very Fine, well struck and nicely patinated.

Very good condition and thus rare. Very little is known of Edmund who was the last king of the independent Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of East Anglia, today's Norfolk and Suffolk. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in A.D. 870: “[the Vikings] went across Mercia into East Anglia, and took winter-quarters at Thetford; and in that year St. Edmund the king fought against them, and the Danish took the victory, and killed the king and conquered all that land…” He may have been slain by the Danes in battle, but by tradition he met his death at an unidentified place known as Haegelisdun, after he refused the Danes' demand that he renounce Christ: the Danes beat him, shot him with arrows and then beheaded him, on the orders of their leaders, Ivar the Boneless and his brother Ubbe Ragnarsson. According to one legend, his head was then thrown into the forest, but was found safe by searchers after following the cries of a wolf that was calling, "Hic, Hic, Hic" – "Here, Here, Here". Commentators have noted how Edmund's death bears resemblance to the fate suffered by St Sebastian, St Denis and St Mary of Egypt. A coinage commemorating Edmund was minted by the Danes a few years after his death and these 'memorial' coins were issued form around 885 to 915. In about 986, Abbo de Fleury wrote of his life and martyrdom. The saint's remains were temporarily moved from Bury to London for safekeeping in 1010. His shrine was visited by many kings, including Canute, who was responsible for rebuilding the abbey: the stone church was rebuilt again in 1095. During the Middle Ages, when Edmund was regarded as the patron saint of England, Bury and its magnificent abbey grew wealthy, but during the Dissolution of the Monasteries, his shrine was destroyed. The mediaeval manuscripts and other works of art relating to Edmund that have survived include Abbo's Passio Santi Eadmundi, John Lydgate's 14th century Life, the Wilton Diptych and a number of church wall paintings. Bury St. Edmunds is named for him.

Anglo-Saxon England Mercia, Coenwulf. Silver Penny c805 – 810, struck at Canterbury by the moneyer Duda.

Stock code: CM001205
£5,250
Country: England, Anglo-Saxon
King (reign): Coenwulf (796 - 821)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Date/mint mark: c805 – 810
Type Portrait Type, Group II.
Ref. no: N 350; S 915.

Obv. Diademed bust right, '+ COENVVVLF REX'. Rev. Cross pommee over quatrefoil with pellet in each angle, within ring, '+ DVDA MONETA', (money of Duda).
19mm, 1.29g. VF - Very Fine or better, on a neat flan and handsomely toned.

Extremely rare and well struck coin in outstanding condition resulting in a fantastic contemporary portrait of this king of Mercia. Coenwulf (796 – 821) was a descendant of a brother of King Penda, who had ruled Mercia in the middle of the 7th century. He succeeded Ecgfrith, the son of Offa; Ecgfrith only reigned for five months, with Coenwulf coming to the throne in the same year that Offa died. In the early years of Coenwulf's reign he had to deal with a revolt in Kent, which had been under Offa's control. Eadberht Præn returned from exile in Francia to claim the Kentish throne and Coenwulf was forced to wait for papal support before he could intervene. When Pope Leo agreed to anathematize Eadberht, Coenwulf invaded and retook the kingdom; Eadberht was taken prisoner, and was blinded and had his hands cut off. Thus it is in the later part of his reign that coins were struck in Canterbury in his name Coenwulf also appears to have lost control of the kingdom of East Anglia during the early part of his reign, as an independent coinage appears under King Eadwald. Coenwulf's coinage reappears in 805 indicating that the kingdom was again under Mercian control.

England, Charles I. Silver Groat, struck at Bridgenorth-on-Severn in 1646.

Stock code: CM001215
£925
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Groat
Date/mint mark: 1646
Type Declaration issues, Bridgenorth mint.
Ref. no: Morr A-1; SCBI Brooker 1133; N 2525; S 3042.

Obv. Crowned bust of Charles, plumelet in front, denomination (IIII) behind, 'CAROLVS DG MAG BR FR ET HIB REX', Rev. Three plumes on a flourish over 'REL. PRO. LEG. ANG. LIB. PAR.' (the Religion of the Protestants, The Laws of England the Liberty of Parliament), date below; and around 'EXVRGAT: DEUS: DISSIPENTVR: INIMICI', (Let God arise and his enemies be scattered).
24mm, 2.07g. GVF - Good Very Fine, Well and centrally Struck, sharp portrait.

Outstanding example - very neat portrait with crisp detail. Also this type is thought to have been issued by the Bridgenorth mint and is very rare. These coins were struck in makeshift conditions – quickly and carelessly to get coin out to pay the troops – only the weight was important. This is a superb specimen in that it is strongly and centrally struck with a very neat portrait. When the Civil War began in 1642, the Tower mint fell into the hands of Parliament and Charles was forced to open a mints in Royalist held western England at Shrewsbury, Oxford, Bristol and in this case, it is generally held, Bridgenorth-on-Severn in Shropshire (1642-1646). In September 1642 he made his famous 'Declaration' promising to uphold the Protestant Religion, the Laws of England and the Liberty of Parliament. This declaration in Latin is displayed on these western mint coins giving them the name of 'Declaration pieces'.

England, William III. Gold Five Guineas, dated 1699.

Stock code: CM001225
£15,750
Country: England, Orange
King (reign): William III (1694 – 1702)
Denomination/metal: Gold Guineas, Five
Date/mint mark: 1699 UNDECIMO
Type First Bust
Ref. no: Schneider 479; MCE 169; S 3454

Obv. Laureate draped bust right, 'GVLIELMVS III DEI GRA'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms in crucifrom, lion of Nassau of in centre, sceptres in angles, 'MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX'.
37mm, 41.62g. AEF - About Extremely Fine, rose toning.

Five guinea pieces were only issued for three years of William's reign so as a type are scarce. This example, although having seen a little wear is a 'clean' specimen – just a little wear on the raised curls and beautiful rose coloured toning to the bloom.

England, Charles II. Hammered Silver 'First Issue' Sixpence, c1661.

Stock code: CM001224
£2,250
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles II (1660 - 1685)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny, Six (Sixpence)
Date/mint mark: c1661
Type Hammered Coinage, First issue.
Ref. no: N 2765; S 3309

Obv. Crowned bust of Charles left, long hair and lace collar, no inner circle. 'CAROLVS II D G MAG BRIT FRAN ET HIB REX'. Rev. Royal Arms on Cross moline, no inner circle, 'CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO' (I reign under the auspice of Christ).
26mm, 2.96g. VF - Very Fine or better, attractively toned.

Very attractive condition – little wear, glorious lustrous blue/gold toning, especially in field between the letters of the legend. Only a two year type thus rare and especially so in this attractive state. This coin has the additional interest in that firstly it it marks the return to Latin from English and the putting back a monarch's head on coins of the realm after Cromwell's Commonwealth. Secondly, it was the last series of hammered coins - for in 1663 the ancient method of striking coins by hand was finally superseded by the 'coin mill'. Coining machinery was installed at the Royal Mint and Blondeau in Cromwell's day and the Roettier brothers engraved dies and for the first time, with a safeguard against clipping, coins were given a grained edge whilst the larger coins were made with an inscribed edge. However, after regaining the throne Charles was very anxious to get coins bearing his image out into circulation – and so he initially set about issuing coins by hand until the coin mills were properly set up and ready to go, producing superior 'milled coins' in early 1663.

England, Charles I. Gold Unite (20 shillings), issued 1635 – 1636.

Stock code: CM001223
£3,000
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Shillings, Twenty (Unite)
Date/mint mark: mm. crown over bell, 1635 – 1636
Type Group 'D'.
Ref. no: Schneider 127/128; N 2159; S 2692

Obv. Crowned, draped bust left, denomination 'XX; to right, CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BR' FR' ET HI' REX'. Rev. Crowned, garnished almost round Royal Arms dividing crowned 'CR', FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA' (Through concord kingdoms flourish).
33mm, 8.88g. VF - Very Fine.

Attractive and traditional lace collared portrait of Charles, all legends strongly and clearly struck – exceptional example and very rare thus. Interesting to note that the mintmark is over the preceding year's mintmark, ie., that they used the die over two periods – just re-engraved the mintmark. Also note that the fashion of ruffs had now died out and contrary to his earlier issues we see Charles wearing a lace collar - with which we normally associate the 'cavaliers'.

England, Edward VI - in the name of his father. Gold Half-Sovereign, struck 1547 ? 1549.

Stock code: CM001220
£3,550
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Edward VI (1547 - 1553)
Denomination/metal: Gold Sovereign, Half
Date/mint mark: mm. arrow, 1547 – 1549
Type Tower Mint, First Coinage in the name of his father.
Ref. no: Schneider 645v; N 1865; S 2391.

Obv. King enthroned facing holding orb and sceptre, 'HENRIC 8 D G AGL FRAN Z HIB REX'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms with supporters (lion & griffon), 'IhS AVTE TRANSIE PER MEDI ILLOR IBAT', (But Jesus passing through the midst of them, went His way).
31mm, 6.17g. VF - Very Fine, good portrait, slight edge split from striking, slightly creased.

Although the piece has seen a small amount of wear the portrait is well struck to give sharp facial features. This is an interesting coin in that it was struck, right at the beginning of Edward's reign when he was only 11 or 12 years of age, bearing hiss father's, Henry VIII, name. In fact the coin is almost exactly the same as a Henry VIII's issue – the only difference being that the whiskers have been removed on the die the render the face younger in appearance! In February 1553, at age 15, Edward fell ill. When his sickness was discovered to be terminal, he and his Council drew up a "Devise for the Succession", attempting to prevent the country being returned to Catholicism. Edward named his cousin Lady Jane Grey as his heir and excluded his half sisters, Mary and Elizabeth. However, this was disputed following Edward's death and Jane was queen for only nine days before Edward's half-sister, Mary, was proclaimed Queen. She reversed Edward's Protestant reforms, which nonetheless became the basis of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement of 1559.

Anglo-Gallic, Edward the Black Prince, gold Chaise d'Or, Bordeaux Mint issued between 1362 & 1372.

Stock code: CM001197
£10,500
Country: England, AngloKing (reign): Edward the Black Prince (1363 - 1376)
Denomination/metal: Gold Chaise d'Or
Date/mint mark: 1362 -1372
Type Bordeaux Mint issue.
Ref. no: Elias 143; Elias Collection 241; Schneider 33; Poey d'Avant 2935

Obv. Full-length figure of Edward seated facing on ornate Gothic throne, holding sceptre in right hand, '+ ?D’· PO’· GnS · R?GIS · AnGLI? · PnS · ?QIT?nI?', (rosette stops), (Edward, first born of the king of England, prince of Aquitaine). Rev. Cross Collarino within ornamental quatrefoil, leopard in 1st. and 4th. angles, lis in 2nd. and 3rd., rosette stops - '+ DEVS . IVDEX . IVSTVS . FORTIS ' Z . PACIENS B', (God is a righteous judge, strong and patient)
28mm, 3.52g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine but soft strike resulting in lack of detail on face, reverse slightly off centre.

Superbly beautiful and quintessentially medieval coin and particularly interesting in that it is issued by the Black Prince, holding Aquitaine for his father Edward III of England. The chaise d'or is accounted the rarest of Edward's gold issues, and the only one that presents the prince as a peaceable ruler, bearing a sceptre rather than the ubiquitous sword. He arrived in Bordeau in July 1363 and with the cutting off of financial links with England produced this coinage issued by prince Edward titled as 'First born of the King of England'. The reverse legend – “God is Judge, Righteous, Strong and Patient" is at odds with the typical motto of Edward's coins, which usually seeks God's protection for the ruler as he wages war against his enemies. The chaise was probably struck during the time when Edward hired himself out as a mercenary to help Pedro the Cruel of Spain regain his throne. Pedro failed to pay the Black Prince the promised money, and Edward's attempt to extract more funds from the French lords under his suzerainty brought about the resumption of the war between England and France. Edward's health broke under the stress of constant campaigning, and he abandoned his fief in 1371, predeceasing his father in 1376.

England, Edward VI silver Halfcrown, dated 1652.

Stock code: CM001191
£2,300
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Edward VI (1547 - 1553)
Denomination/metal: Silver Crown, Half
Date/mint mark: 1652
Type Fine silver issue.
Ref. no: N 1934; S 2479

Obv. Crowned and fully armoured king, holding sword in right hand on fully caparisoned horse walking right, EDWARD VI D'G'AGL' FRA' Z HIBER' REX'. Rev. Royal Arms on cross fourchee, POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE' MEVM', (I have made god my helper).
36mm, 15.4g. GVF - Good Very Fine well struck.

Some superficial wear, but well struck so all main features of king and horse are clearly discernible. This coin is particularly interesting in that it claims a first - it is the first time an English silver coin bears the date in Arabic numerals! The coin is rare and as a type was only issued for three years – 1551, 52 and 53.

England, Charles I large Silver Pound 1642 issued at Oxford in exceptional condition.

Stock code: CM001193
£12,500
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Pound
Date/mint mark: 1642
Type Oxford Mint, 'Shrewsbury' Horseman.
Ref. no: M B-2; J&B 860; S 2940.

Obv. Crowned king in full armour riding to right over strewn arms including a canon, 'CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT FRA' ET HIBER' REX'. Rev. Declaration 'RELIG PROT LEG ANG LIBER PAR' (Protestant Religion. Laws of England, Freedom of Parliament) between three Oxford plumes and denomination (XX) above and date below, 'EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI' (Let God arise, let his enemies be scattered).
54mm, 11.93g. AEF - Almost Extremely Fine, well struck with very attractive toning.

Very rare to find in such good condition – these huge coins often split their flans when struck (which this has a little) and due to their large weight quickly wore each other down when carried in a money bag. So as well as being a rare, it is doubly rare to find one in so well struck and in such good condition, and also with such a noble provenance. When the Civil War began in 1642, the Tower mint fell into the hands of Parliament and Charles was forced to open a mints in Royalist held western England at Shrewsbury and Oxford (1642 - 46). In September 1642 he made his famous 'Declaration' promising to uphold the Protestant Religion, the Laws of England and the Liberty of Parliament. This declaration in Latin is displayed on these western mint coins giving them the name of 'Declaration pieces'. Furthermore, Charles was running out of gold but had a ready supply of silver mainly from South Wales and thus through necessity, began to issue gold denominations in silver. This gave rise to this huge unwieldy series of pounds and half-pounds, the largest British silver current coin ever issued. Very rare and beautiful Civil War coin with a local interest --- and very large!

England, Charles I gold Unite (20/-) struck in 1625, the first year of his reign.

Stock code: CM001194
£2,050
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Gold Unite
Date/mint mark: mm. lis, 1625
Type Tower Mint under king, Group 'A', First bust, Type '1'.
Ref. no: S 2685

Obv. Bust of king left with high double crown wearing coronation robes with large ruff. Denomination 'XX' behind head, 'CAROLVS:D':G':MAG':BR':FR':ET:H':REX'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms, square topped and garnished, 'FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA', (through concord kingdoms flourish).
34mm, 8.89g. - About Very Fine, reverse a little double struck.

Although this coin has seen a little wear, it is well struck and all the main details are clear, especially the portrait. Reverse is a little double struck. This coin was issued in the first year of Charles's reign, 1625, and he is featured on this coin in his coronation robes. It is interesting to note his ornate ruff, (a style of Spanish origin that was about to go out of fashion and flat lace collars would come in) and his ermine cloak collar and order, part of the ceremonial robes.

Celtic Britain CORIELTAUVI, Vep Corf (retrograde) pale gold Stater AD 5 – 25.

Stock code: CM001196
£1,050
Country: England, Celtic
King (reign): Vasu Deva II (288AD - 300AD)
Denomination/metal: Gold Stater
Date/mint mark: cAD 5 – 25
Type First Coinage.
Ref. no: BM 3296; vA 930; S -

Obv. Crude wreath design. Rev. Disjointed 'Celticised' horse, three pellets below horses tail, 'VEP' above, '(C)ORF' below.
20mm, 5.2g. GVF - Good Very Fine.

Very interesting example of this Corieltauvi stater – with the upper part of the legend 'VEP' being retrograde. A very rare variation! The meaning of Vep Corf is not really understood – CORF could perhaps be read as COR F, i.e. son (Filius) of Cor, or does COR refer to 'Corieltauvi'. Vep was probably a 'chief' of the Corieltauvi, a tribe based in the English East Midlands and Lincolnshire, around the time of the Roman conquest of Britain. Who ever Vep was he probably produced coins over a considerable period as the series has many variations and issued coins from around AD 5 – 25.

Scotland, Splendid gold Rider (100/- Scots) dated 1594.

Stock code: CM000779
£6,500
Country: Scotland
King (reign): James VI (1567 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, 100
Date/mint mark: 1594
Type Seventh issue.
Ref. no: S 5458

Obv. James, in full armour holding sword and orb, riding a fully caparisoned horse right, 'IACOBVS 6 D G R SCOTORVM'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms, 'SPERO MELIORA' ( I hope hope better things).
28mm, 4.96g. AVF - Almost Very Fine, well struck.

Very splendid Scottish coin, nicknamed the 'rider' this coin was worth 100 shillings Scots This coin was issued just before James became King of England and was brought south by James in 1603 and was made legal tender in England and Wales as 10 shillings. The coinage of James VI is a very large and varied issue – more so than any other Scottish monarch, many new and innovatively designed pieces were introduced during this reign as well as several new denominations. After he inherited the English throne as James I in 1603 the Scottish monetary system was tied to the English system at a rate of 12:1 which was continued until the union of the two crowns as the United Kingdom under Anne in 1707, at which point the Scottish coinage was called in.

England, Gold Laurel (20/-) of James I - issued between 1621 & 1623.

Stock code: CM001185
£2,900
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): James I (1603 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Laurel
Date/mint mark: mm. thistle, 1621 - 1623
Type Third Coinage, 3rd. Bust
Ref. no: S 2638A.

Obv. Laureate, draped bust of James left, denomination 'XX' behind, 'IACOBVS D'G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms on cross fourchee, 'FACIAM EOS IN GENTEM VNAM', (I will make them into one nation).
35mm, 9.06g. AVF - About Very Fine, well struck.

Not very rare issue and exhibiting some wear - however, this piece has a well struck detailed portrait with all legends readable - also very nice even light toning and large flan thus desirable. In 1619 there was a currency reform and new 20 shillings piece was reduced in weigh making the former coins worth 22 shillings. To make it easy to differentiate between the two coins this new lighter coin was issued with James facing left - the other direction - and wearing a laurel wreath rather than a crown. Consequently it became known as a 'Laurel'.

England, Spectacular and large gold Rose-Ryal (30/-) of James I, struck between 1605 & 1606.

Stock code: CM001172
£15,000
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): James I (1603 - 1625)
Denomination/metal: Gold Rose Ryal
Date/mint mark: mm. rose; 1605 - 1606
Type Second Coinage
Ref. no: Schneider 10 ; N 2079; S 2613.

Obv. King enthroned in state robes holding orb and sceptre, Portcullis at feet, 'IACOBVS D G MAG BRIT FRAN ET HIBER REX'. Rev. Royal Arms on Tudor Rose, 'A DNO FACTVM EST ISTVD ET EST MIRAB IN OCVLIS NRIS', (This is the Lord's doing, and marvellous in our eyes).
41mm, 13.42g. AVF - Almost Very Fine, well struck so although some wear, in fact all details strong.

Very splendid and spectacular coin struck in the style of James’s Tudor predecessors - which denomination was discontinued after 1624’. It's Tudor style can be clearly seen in the large full-rose reverse and the monarch enthroned in full regalia on the obverse – a coin first introduced by Henry VII at the end of the 16th. Century. On inheriting the Tudor throne James Stuart was keen to illustrate the handsome example – well struck, good clear definition – particularly in his facial features, clothing, rose petals and both obv. and rev. legends. The coinage of James I is particularly diverse and this piece must count as one of the most splendid making it very desirable.

England, Edward VI large gold Sovereign issued at Southwark between 1549 & 1550.

Stock code: CM001176
£17,500
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Edward IV (1471 - 1483)
Denomination/metal: Gold Sovereign
Date/mint mark: mm. 'Y', 1549 - 1550
Type Second period, Southwark Mint.
Ref. no: Schneider 685; N 1906; S 2433.

Obv. Crowned King seated in throne, facing, 'EDWARD ; VI : D' G' AGL' FRAN' ET HIB' REX'. Rev. Crowned Royal Arms with lion and griffon supporters 'ER' in cartouche below. 'IHS AVTEM TRANSIENS PER ME' DO ILLORV' IBAT', (But Jesus, passing through the midst of them, went His way).
36mm, 10.11g. AVF - Almost Extremely Fine, some wear but generally well struck. A little tooling in one area of the field between lower centre and right scroll on rev.

This sovereign of 20 shillings issued in Southwark during the first part of the Boy King's reign, ie when he was only ten years of age, is a superb contemporary portrait of Henry VIII's sickly son Edward VI. A little weakly struck at his face, otherwise other details clear. This was the first of three types of gold Sovereign depicting the boy King Edward VI dating to 1550. This second period coinage was only issued once the King was satisfied that the coinage could be sustained at a higher fineness of gold than his Father's debased issues. Therefore this Sovereign was issued at 22 carat fineness (0.917 fine), which we still use for British gold coinage today, and a 20-Shilling face value, though it weighed only just over 169 grains (10.977g), as the country continued to recover from the extravagance of Henry VIII. This example was struck at the Southwark mint where Sir John Yorke was the Under-Treasurer, hence the use of his surname initial 'Y' for the mintmark.

England, Henry VII. Gold Angel (6s/8d.), struck 1505 to 1509.

Stock code: CM001183
£2,250
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Henry VII (1485 - 1509)
Denomination/metal: Gold Angel
Date/mint mark: mm. pheon, 1505 - 1509
Type Type 5
Ref. no: Schneider 542; n 1698; S 2187.

Obv. The angel St. Michael spearing fallen dragon like devil, 'HENRIC DI GRA REX ANGL Z FR'. Rev. Ancient ship with central mast a cross upon which is the Royal Arms, 'h' and rose either side. 'PER CRVCE TVA SALVA NOS XPE RED', (By the cross save us, Oh Christ our Redeemer).
28mm, 5.03g. AVF - About Very Fine, well struck.

Some wear but all the main features visible – pretty little coin. The angel had been issued for nearly a hundred years but towards the turn of the century the design of St. Michael was changed from a fairly 'elfish' feathered figure to a winged knight in renaissance armour as seen here. The Lancastrian Henry (VII) Tudor married Yorkist Edward IV's daughter thereby bringing together the red and white roses to form the 'Tudor Rose' and thus ending the 'Wars of the Roses' which had devastated England for 50 years.

England, Charles I gold Unite (20/-) issued 134 – 1635.

Stock code: CM001152
£3,150
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Gold Shillings, Twenty (Unite)
Date/mint mark: Mintmark 'Bell' 1634 – 35.
Type Tower Mint, Group D, Bust 5.
Ref. no: N 2153; S 2692.

Obv. Crowned, draped bust left, denomination 'XX' to right, CAROLVS D' G' MA' BR' FR' ET HI' REX'. Rev. Crowned, garnished almost round Royal Arms dividing crowned 'CR', 'FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA' (Through concord kingdoms flourish).
32mm, 9.05g. VF - Very Fine, well struck though weakness in one part of legend.

Superb and traditional lace collared portrait of Charles, apart from one small area all legends strongly and clearly struck – very attractive example and rare thus. Interesting to note that the fashion of ruffs had now died out and contrary to his earlier issues we see Charles wearing a lace collar - with which we normally associate the 'Cavaliers'.

Viking England, Anlaf Guthfrithsson silver 'Raven' penny, struck at York , 939 - 941

Stock code: CM001154
£24,000
Country: England, Celtic
King (reign): Anlaf Guthfriston (939 -941)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny
Date/mint mark: 939 – 941
Type Hiberno Norse Viking issue, struck YORK
Ref. no: N 537; S 1019

Obv. Raven with wings displayed and head turned to left, ' •+A•NLAF CVNVNC IL' (Anlaf king). Rev. Small cross pattee in centre '+•A•ÐEL•FERD MINET RG' (Athelferd Moneyer).
20mm, 1.21g. EF - Better than Extremely Fine, well struck and beautifully toned, likely best example known. Once 'slabbed' and graded by NGC as 'MS62' [their certificate inc.].

Superb, exceptionally rare and archetypal Viking coin, generally considered to be the best example in existence! Anlaf Guthfrithsson was the Viking King of Dublin who had come over to England and brought with him an Hiberno-Norse army to support the two Scottish kings - Constantine II and Owen I against Aethelstan, King of Anglo-Saxon England. This combined Norse-Celtic force lost the massive and very bloody battle of Brunanburh in 937 believed to be somewhere in the Wirral - but Anlaf survived the route and escaped back to Ireland. A few years later after the death of Aethelstan in 939, in a period of uncertainty, he returned and successfully seized York and parts of the East Midlands and set up a Viking kingdom which lasted for ten years . This archetypal Viking coin the ‘Raven Penny’ was minted during this short rule, for he died two years later in 941. The obverse legend means ‘King Anlaf’ (Olaf) in Old Norse and is one of the earliest surviving texts in this language. Most Viking coins had Latin inscriptions like Anglo-Saxon coins of the period so this coin is truly Viking and doubly so as it features the Viking war standard - the raven – or is it an eagle? Both birds were associated with the Norse god "Odin", but the eagle is also associated with St John the Evangelist, so the religious message of the coins is uncertain. It could be a deliberately pagan symbol, or one which both pagans and Christians could accept. This is a very rare coin and this particular piece is exceptionally rare as it is very likely the best example in existence. With its ‘Old Norse’ legends and splendid raven it is everything one would expect a Viking coin to look like and thus has become an iconic coin.

England, Charles I. 'Second Issue' Silver milled sixpence issued 1638 and 1639.

Stock code: CM001177
£800
Country: England, Stuart
King (reign): Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Denomination/metal: Silver Penny, Six (Sixpence)
Date/mint mark: mm. 'Anchor', 1638 - 1639
Type Briot's Second Milled Issue
Ref. no: S 2860.

Obv. Crowned bust left, denomination (VI) behind, 'CAROLVS DG MAG BRIT FR ET HIB REX'. Rev. Royal Arms on cross recerclee,'CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO', (I reign under the auspice of Christ).
25mm, 2.93g. GEF - Good Extremely Fine, light correction marks on obv., very attractive iridescent toning to lustre.

Superb example of this Second Milled sixpence with fantastic iridescent lustre of blues and pinks. Charles employed the Frenchman Nicholas Briot who issued his machine made coins (ie milled rather than hammered) as an experiment in 1631 and 1632 and then again, after his return from Scotland, in 1638 to 1639 when this coin was made. This example exhibits virtually no wear although there are the normal correction marks - but otherwise has a fantastic portrait of the king. Although he produced superior coins that were well and precision struck, Briot and his milling machines were unpopular at the Tower of London. However in 1633 Charles had made Briot 'Chief Engraver' and a few years later Briot again attempted mechanisation at the Mint. Unfortunately, this second attempt was shelved after only a few months by the Civil War and thus in this piece we have not only a very rare and superiorly produced coin but also an important 'landmark' in the issue of milled British coins which would not be fully instituted at the Mint for a further thirty years.

England, Henry VIII..Gold Angel (6s/8d.) struck 1509 to 1526.

Stock code: CM001184
£2,150
Country: England, Tudor
King (reign): Henry VIII (1509 - 1547)
Denomination/metal: Gold Angel
Date/mint mark: mm. castle, 1509 - 1526
Type First Coinage
Ref. no: Schneider 560; N 1760; S 2265.

Obv. The angel St. Michael spearing fallen dragon like devil, 'HENRIC VIII DI GRA REX AGL Z FR'. Rev. Ancient ship with central mast a cross upon which is the Royal Arms, 'h' and rose either side. 'PER CRVCE TVA SALVA NOS XPE REDET', (By the cross save us, Oh Christ our Redeemer).
28mm, 5.08g. AVF - About Very Fine, well struck.

Some wear but strongly struck so that all the main features and letters in the legend are very visible. Henry VIII was the second monarch of the House of Tudor, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Very handsome coin of this well-known king. Besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. Henry's struggles with Rome led to the separation of the Church of England from papal authority, the Dissolution of Monasteries and establishing himself as the Supreme Head of the church of England Yet he remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings, even after his excommunication from the Catholic Church. Henry oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 - 1542. He ruled with absolute power and his desire to provide England with a male heir—which stemmed partly from personal vanity and partly because he believed a daughter, would be unable to consolidate the Tudor dynasty and the fragile peace that existed following the Wars of the Roses - led to the two things that Henry is remembered for: his six marriages, and the English reformation , which made England a mostly Protestant nation. In later life he became morbidly obese and his health suffered; his public image is frequently depicted as one of a lustful, egotistical, harsh, and insecure king.